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  • Jupiter's Family Secrets
    Jupiter and NASA s upcoming Juno mission The activities showcase how the Juno mission will unveil Jupiter s deepest secrets including clues about how our solar system formed and Jupiter s unique traits You may design your own program of one or more of these flexible selections or you may choose to build the story of the Juno mission and its science through the complete series of activities Background information and facilitator resources are provided to help you prepare to lead the activities The activities are suitable for children ages 8 to 13 with a rich selection of deeper investigations for children ages 11 to 13 Encourage further exploration with the books websites and videos listed in the resources section Children read about the members of our solar system family and then create scale models of their sizes and distances in the introductory activities Jump Start Jupiter and Jump to Jupiter Children and their families see the planets for themselves in the night viewing event Planet Party The children use modeling and experiments to explore Jupiter s unique personality traits including its dynamic weather Weather Stations mysterious interior Investigating the Insides and Jiggly Jupiter and amazing magnetic field Neato Magneto

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/explore/solar_system/ (2016-02-15)
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  • FacultyInstitutes
    conducted over a period of three years to assist university and community college faculty in preparing future teachers in science education NASA Earth and space scientists and educators shared authentic inquiry activities data and resources related to key topics from the national science standards Data sets and other resources can be accessed in the left menu bar NASA Science Mission Directorate has funded a new FINESSE program with many of the same team members Check it out here FINESSE Institutes will be implemented by a team of Earth and space science education specialists including Lin Chambers Director MY NASA DATA Project NASA Langley Research Center Rick Pomeroy Lecturer Supervisor Science Teacher Education School of Education University of California Davis Greg Schultz Director of Education Astronomical Society of the Pacific Stephanie Shipp Manager Education and Public Outreach Lunar and Planetary Institute Christine Shupla Education Specialist Lunar and Planetary Institute Stephanie Slater Assistant Professor Cognition in Astronomy Physics and Earth sciences Research CAPER Team University of Wyoming Timothy F Slater Excellence in Higher Education Endowed Professor Cognition in Astronomy Physics and Earth sciences Research CAPER Team University of Wyoming Denise Smith Manager Special Projects Office of Public Outreach Space Telescope Science Institute

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/facultyInstitutes/ (2016-02-15)
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  • Around and Round: Lunar Phases, Planetary Orbits, and Seasons
    the Earth and inner planets in a larger classroom size model Activities for Teaching Seasons Data Inquiry Activity Heating Things Up Students graph average high monthly temperatures for different cities to learn how temperatures vary by location and by season SunWatchers Students observe the sunrise and sunset positions of the Sun and its altitude in the sky over a year to connect with the Sun s apparent motions over a year Reasons for Seasons Students explore a model of the Earth s daily rotation and annual revolution around the Sun There are a variety of write ups for this activity available from different sources another great sources is the GEMS guide Reasons for the Seasons Daylight Hours Students reinforce their understanding of seasonal dynamics by reading and graphing annual day length data to determine the relative north or south latitude and name of their mystery city Activities for Teaching Lunar Phases Moon Observations Students record data about Moon phases on a data sheet over the course of one complete Moon cycle approximately 28 days Oreo Phases Students will recreate the lunar phases using the frosting from Oreo cookies Round cream cheese crackers can also be used if cookies are not an option How Far is the Moon Students reinforce their understanding of seasonal dynamics by reading and graphing annual day length data to determine the relative north or south latitude and name of their mystery city Golf ball Phases and Embroidery Hoop Eclipses In the first half students explore the dynamics of lunar phases to develop an understanding of the relative positions of our Moon Earth and Sun that cause the phases of the Moon as viewed from Earth Using a golf ball glowing under the ultraviolet light of a blacklight makes it easier to see the actual phase of

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/workshops/phasesSeasons/ (2016-02-15)
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  • The Unknown Moon Institute 2011
    the Moon Form Planning a Mission to the Lunar South Pole Investigating the Moon research question activity Impact Cratering Lab described but not conducted Mission Moon described but not conducted Discussion Based Activities Nature of Science Sorting Activity Teaching Science Interactive Activity Powerpoints The Moon Applications and Technical Value a presentation by Dr Paul Spudis Note some of these images are under copyright please do not publish this without permission from Dr Spudis Video of Dr Spudis presentation at ISDC 2011 Moon Basics Rotation Revolution Orbital Characteristics Phases and Eclipses How Can Radar See Lunar Landforms Radar Image Analysis Using Radar to Search the Darkness Interactive Triads as Teaching Strategies What are Planets Made Of Using Infrared Spectroscopy to Investigate the Solar System presentation by Dr Rachel Klima The Lunar Poles An Ideal Site for Scientific Exploration presentation by Dr Ben Bussey Formation of the Moon presentation by Dr Joshua Cahill Assessment resources Pre Assessment Techniques Pre Assessment Strategies How Far is the Moon Assessment Primer Types of Assessment Inquiry and pedagogy resources What Is Inquiry in Science What Teacher Educators Need to Know about Inquiry ABC Classrooms Overview of Learning Styles Moon Phases Educational Research Lunar Disk Certification process

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/workshops/unknownMoon/agenda.html (2016-02-15)
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  • Archive of 2009–2013 High School Lunar Research Presentations
    Higher Education Resources Expanded Education and Public Outreach Multimedia Never Stop Exploring Image Gallery Expanded Team Members Publications Opportunities Archive of 2010 2013 High School Lunar Research Presentations 2010 2011 Student Presentations 2011 2012 Student Presentations 2012 2013 Student Presentations

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/exploration/education/hsResearch/presentations/archive/ (2016-02-15)
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  • Regional Planetary Image Facility
    such as light tables copy stand copier and scanners Temporary workspace and meeting tales are available for users The reference staff can assist with using the collection equipment and with identifying and obtaining materials Use the Library Catalog to search the LPI Regional Planetary Image Facility collection browse through the planetary image collection or investigate an online collection listed below Astromaterials Planetary Imagery Apollo Sample and Photo Database Lunar Meteorite Compendium Lunar Sample Atlas Genesis Solar Winds Samples Catalog HED Compendium Lunar Sample Compendium Mars Meteorite Compendium Stardust Sample Database Planetary Maps Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature Lunar Map Catalog Mars Map Catalog Mercury Map Catalog USGS Index of Maps of the Planets and Satellites Venus Map Catalog Social Media Facebook Regional Planetary Image Facility Network Facebook Lunar and Planetary Institute Flickr Lunar and Planetary Institute Google Lunar and Planetary Institute Pinterest Lunar and Planetary Institute Library Twitter LPI Library What s New YouTube Lunar and Planetary Institute Apollo Image Archive Apollo Image Atlas Apollo Surface Panoramas Consolidated Lunar Atlas Digital Lunar Orbiter Photographic Atlas of the Moon European Space Agency ESA Planetary Science Archive Imagery Gallery Slide Sets JAXA Digital Archives Lunar Orbiter Photographic Atlas of the Moon Lunar Orbiter

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/library/rpif.shtml (2016-02-15)
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  • Mars Polar Science and Exploration
    south polar layered deposits submeter scale images of the stratigraphy exposed in the polar troughs and reentrants radargrams of the basal topography and internal structure of the deposits year round coverage of the thermophysical radiative and compositional properties of the polar atmosphere and surface and in situ investigations of the near surface volatile stratigraphy soil composition geology and meteorology of the Martian high arctic The Martian climate exerts a powerful influence on the planet s geologic hydrologic and atmospheric evolution as well as its habitability By analogy with terrestrial ice core studies the Martian polar deposits are believed to contain a climate record dating back many millions to hundreds of millions of years However to decipher this record we must improve our understanding of the age and stratigraphy of the deposits their depositional erosional deformational and melting histories and their long term exchange with surface and subsurface ice deposits elsewhere on the planet It was to advance this understanding and promote the exchange of knowledge and ideas between planetary and terrestrial scientists interested in polar and climate research that the First International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration was organized at Camp Allen in Houston Texas in October 1998 Because much of the existing expertise in polar science and climate research exists outside of the United States the venues of the four succeeding conferences Reykjavik Iceland August 2000 Lake Louise Canada October 2003 Davos Switzerland October 2006 and Fairbanks Alaska September 2011 where chosen to both encourage greater international and interdisciplinary participation and to provide access to a diverse range of glacial and cold climate landforms not found in the contiguous US for the conference field trips An important product of each meeting has been the identification of Key Questions and Needed Observations by the conference participants which contributed

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/mars_polar/ (2016-02-15)
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  • Video Simulations of Impact Cratering Processes
    simulations can be viewed simultaneously side by side by single clicking on the image A simple crater Altering impactor density Impact details Simple crater Moon Impactor material Iron 7800 kg m 3 density Impactor diameter 100 m Impact velocity 15 km s Gravity 1 61 m s 2 Target material Lunar crust 2700 kg m 3 density The following videos highlight how altering impactor density affects the cratering process Here the impactor material is iron instead of dunite 7800 kg m 3 density compared to 3300 kg m 3 all other parameters are kept constant This impact therefore has 2 4x more energy and mass than the canonical impact In this scenario the cavity reaches a maximum depth of 790 meters after 7 5 seconds the maximum volume is reached after 23 5 seconds The collapse of crater wall material into the crater center is completed 120 seconds after impact The final crater is 2 8 kilometers in diameter less than 20 greater in diameter than the canonical scenario Iron impactor left and the canonical dunite impactor right Single click on the images to open the videos Both simulations can be viewed simultaneously side by side by single clicking on the image Geological field studies of craters as well as cratering experiments have shown that simple craters have a crater depth to diameter ratio of 0 2 0 25 The relationship between crater depth and diameter for the simple craters modeled here is shown below These results are consistent with the field studies and cratering experiments Crater depth against crater diameter for the 5 simple crater model simulations described above COMPLEX CRATERS Lunar central peak complex craters from left to right 28 kilometer diameter Euler AS17 2923 86 kilometer diameter Tycho NASA GSFC Arizona State University 93 kilometer diameter Copernicus AS17 151 23260 Is there any difference in the impact process between Solar System bodies such as planets This can be investigated by altering the surface gravity in computer simulations The following video illustrates the impact of the 200 m diameter impactor scenario described above using Earth s gravity 9 81 m s 2 instead of lunar gravity 1 61 m s 2 Complex craters Altering surface gravity Impact details Complex crater Earth Impactor material Dunite 3300 kg m 3 density Impactor diameter 200 m Impact velocity 15 km s Gravity 9 81 m s 2 Target material Earth crust 2700 kg m 3 density On impact the cavity that forms is smaller than its counterpart on the Moon it reaches a maximum depth of 990 meters after 8 5 seconds and a maximum volume after only 10 seconds After 10 seconds the crater floor begins to rise forming a central uplift that decreases the depth of the crater center by 600 meters Thus the same size projectile produces a central peak complex crater on Earth while forming a simple crater on the Moon The cratering process is complete within about 50 seconds which is much faster than the comparable impact on the Moon The scenario using Earth gravity forms a central peak complex crater 3 6 kilometers in diameter that is similar in size to Steinheim Germany and Flynn Creek USA craters on Earth 200 meter diameter impactor hitting Earth gravity 9 81 m s 2 creating a complex crater left and hitting the Moon gravity 1 61 m s 2 creating a simple crater right Single click on the images to open the videos Both simulations can be viewed simultaneously side by side by single clicking on the image Why does this set of impact conditions form a complex crater on Earth but a simple crater on the Moon This is due to the difference in gravity between the two bodies Earth s gravity is 6 times greater than that of the Moon This means the impact energy has a greater gravitational force to overcome hence the shallower transient cavity depth and final crater diameter on Earth The central uplift is created by a strength threshold being exceeded beneath the crater whereby gravity rather than strength becomes the dominant force uplifting the crater floor The transition from simple to complex craters is inversely proportional to surface gravity On Earth 9 81 m s 2 gravity the transition is 2 4 kilometers on Mars 3 7 m s 2 gravity 5 10 kilometers and on the Moon 15 20 km Complex craters Peak ring craters A peak ring crater Chicxulub Impact details Peak ring crater Earth Impactor material Dunite 3300 kg m 3 density Impactor diameter 14 4 km Impact velocity 12 km s Gravity 9 81m s 2 Target material Carbonate platform sediments 2600 kg m 3 density over granitic crust 2700 kg m 3 density and mantle 3300 kg m 3 As impact size increases central peaks are replaced by a ring of massifs mountains referred to as a peak ring The peak ring diameter is approximately half the crater diameter The following video illustrates the formation process for the Chicxulub crater Mexico the best preserved large scale crater with a peak ring on Earth The model setup follows that of the Chicxulub target site a 2 8 kilometer thick calcite layer limestone on top of a 30 kilometer thick granite layer collectively these two layers comprise the crust overlaying a dunite mantle On impact the transient cavity opens up reaching its maximum depth of 32 4 kilometers 20 seconds after impact Following this the crater floor begins to rise maximum cavity volume is reached after 55 seconds while the crater floor continues to rise The central uplift surpasses the pre impact target surface 2 minutes after impact and reaches a maximum height of 15 kilometers at 3 minutes As the central uplift collapses granitic material is spread out over the surface burying the calcite later After 8 minutes the crater formation process is complete The final crater has a rim to rim diameter of 160 kilometers the peak ring formed by the collapsing central uplift has a diameter of 90 kilometers At depth the crater collapse process has uplifted the crust mantle boundary by 2 kilometers beneath the crater center and created a slight thickening 1 kilometer of crustal material 35 kilometers out from the center Chicxulub sized impact on Earth Single click on the image to open the video The Chicxulub impactor has a mass and kinetic energy approximately 250 000 times equivalent to 5 orders of magnitude greater than the impactor that produced the central peak complex crater illustrated above The greater energy results in a far larger transient crater and a more pronounced uplift of crater floor material which ultimately collapses back into the target helping to form the peak ring The magnitude of this impact event means a greater volume of target material is affected by the impact including the crust mantle boundary at a depth of 30 kilometers The Chicxulub impact occurred 65 million years ago and is famous for leading to the extinction of the dinosaurs Other sites of interest Summary of the Chicxulub Impact Event at the K T Boundary A peak ring crater Chicxulub on the Moon Impact details Peak ring crater Moon Impactor material Dunite 3300 kg m 3 density Impactor diameter 14 4 km Impact velocity 12 km s Gravity 1 61 m s 2 How would the Chicxulub impact differ if the event occurred on the Moon instead of the Earth The following video illustrates the crater forming process for a Chicxulub sized impactor on the Moon Under the Moon s weaker gravity the transient cavity reaches a greater depth 40 5 kilometers and reaches its greater maximum volume after a longer time period 170 seconds The central uplift also reaches a greater height The peak ring is 90 kilometers in diameter with the final crater 210 kilometers in diameter greater in size than the crater formed on Earth On the Moon the main impact processes for this scenario are complete after 20 minutes Chicxulub sized impact on the Moon left and the Earth right Single click on the images to open the videos Both simulations can be viewed simultaneously side by side by single clicking on the image This impact scenario on the Moon produces a crater similar in size to the lunar crater Schwarzschild which has a diameter of 207 kilometers and a peak ring diameter of 71 kilometers Schwarzschild crater on the Moon NASA Clementine image IMPACT BASINS Lunar impact basins from left to right 320 kilometer diameter Schrödinger Clementine Mosaic 930 kilometer diameter Orientale LRO WAC Mosaic and LOLA topography and 2400 kilometer diameter South Pole Aitken LOLA topography As impact energy continues to increase so too does the size of the crater The largest impact structures are known as basins On the Moon these are impact structures greater than 300 kilometers in diameter The best preserved small basin on the Moon is Schrödinger 320 kilometers diameter Schrödinger is also the second youngest impact basin on the Moon Other sites of interest Flyover of a portion of Schrödinger basin Lunar Orbiter Imager IV 008 M IV 009 M IV 038 M IV 044 M IV 052 M IV 058 M IV 082 M IV 094 M IV 106 M IV 118 M V 021 H2 and V 021 M Lunar Polar Chart A multi ring basin Orientale Impact details Multi ring basin Moon Impactor material Dunite 3300 kg m 3 density Impactor diameter 50 km Impact velocity 15 km s Gravity 1 61 m s 2 Target thermal gradient 10 K km At the very largest scale impact basins are characterized by multiple ring structures rather than just a single peak ring structure The best preserved multi ring basin on the Moon is the 930 kilometer diameter Orientale which also happens to be the youngest impact basin on the Moon it formed 3 8 billion years ago The following video illustrates the formation of the Orientale basin The mass of this impactor is 40 times greater than that of the Chicxulub impactor its kinetic energy is nearly 65 times greater The mass and kinetic energy of this impactor is 40 times and 17 times respectively greater than that forming the Orientale basin On impact a transient cavity forms as material is excavated or displaced from the impact site The cavity expands vertically and laterally before the floor of the cavity begins to rise after 3 to 4 minutes The cavity reaches its maximum volume the transient crater 4 minutes after impact Following transient crater formation the cavity begins to collapse After 9 minutes the rising crater floor has formed a central uplift that has risen above the original target surface The uplift continues to rise until 16 minutes when it begins to collapse back into the Moon During the rise of the central uplift the ejecta curtain formed by the excavated material begins to drape over the lunar surface creating an ejecta blanket The collapsing uplift also overturns crustal material onto itself helping to form a slight bulge in the crustal thickness at a distance of 250 kilometers from the basin center The uplift has fully collapsed by 27 minutes and is followed by a secondary far smaller uplift Uplift rise and collapse phases cease around 50 minutes The complete basin forming process for Orientale is finished within two hours of the initial impact Orientale sized impact on the Moon Single click on the image to open the video Other sites of interest Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mosaic Multi ring basins The effect of impact velocity Impact details Multi ring basin Moon Impactor material Dunite 3300 kg m 3 density Impactor diameter 60 km Impact velocity 10 km s and 20 km s Gravity 1 61 m s 2 Target thermal gradient 10 K km The following videos show the effect of impact velocity on the cratering process for an Orientale sized impact The video on the left uses an impact velocity of 10 km s The video on the right uses an impact velocity of 20 km s These velocities are typical of those expected around the time of Orientale s formation The videos illustrate material on the right hand side crust in beige mantle in gray with the grid of cells overlaid and temperature on the left hand side blues are low temperatures reds are high temperatures In the 10 km s case the crater reaches a maximum depth of 162 kilometers after three minutes whereas at 20 km s the crater reaches a maximum depth of 218 kilometers after 4 minutes The transient crater forms after 4 minutes for the impact at 10 km s and 5 minutes for the impact at 20 km s After transient crater formation the craters begin to collapse as the crater floor rises The central uplift that is created via this process is far wider in the faster impact and also reaches a greater maximum height 260 kilometers compared to 160 kilometers As the uplift collapses overturn of crustal material is more prominent in the faster impact Enough energy is also still present in the faster impact for a secondary uplift collapse phase to occur Again the final basins are produced within two hours of the initial impact The faster impact creates a larger central zone of mantle material 250 kilometer radius than the slower impact 150 kilometer radius The location of the thickened annular bulge of crustal material is also further away from the basin center in the faster impact 300 kilometers compared to 250 kilometers Finally the post impact thermal conditions noticeably differ between the two scenarios Temperatures are hotter light to dark reds around the basin center and extend to greater depths in the faster impact scenario Overall the difference in impact velocity between these two scenarios produces basins with very different features and dimensions Orientale sized impacts on the Moon at 10 km s left and 20 km s right Colors represent temperatures blues are low temperatures and reds are high temperatures Single click on the images to open the videos Both simulations can be viewed simultaneously side by side by single clicking on the image Multi ring basins Orientale on the Earth Impact details Multi ring basin Earth Impactor material Dunite 3300 kg m 3 density Impactor diameter 50 km Impact velocity 20 km s Gravity 9 81 m s 2 Target thermal gradient 10 K km The following videos illustrates the effect of surface gravity on the formation process for a multi ring basin Here the Orientale sized impactor traveling at 20 km s is modeled as if it hit the Earth All other parameters are kept constant Again the video illustrates material on the right hand side crust in beige mantle in gray with the grid of cells overlaid and temperature on the left hand side blues are low temperatures reds are high temperatures On impact the cavity reaches a maximum depth of 156 km with the transient crater forming after only 2 minutes the transient crater volume is 25 that of the impact into the Moon During crater collapse the central uplift reaches a lower maximum height than the equivalent impact on the Moon and also involves the overturn of less crustal material Uplift and collapse phases are completed within 30 minutes compared to 70 minutes for the impact on the Moon The impact into Earth produces a far smaller crustal annular bulge radius 100 kilometers Less crustal material is excavated in this impact resulting in a far thicker layer of hot crustal material around the basin center Orientale sized impacts on the Earth left and the Moon right both at 20 km s Colors represent temperatures blues are low temperatures and reds are high temperatures Single click on the images to open the videos Both simulations can be viewed simultaneously side by side by single clicking on the image The largest lunar basin South Pole Aitken The South Pole Aitken SPA basin LOLA topographic map SPA is defined by the region of low blues and greens topography Impact details Multi ring basin Moon Impactor material Dunite 3300 kg m 3 density Impactor diameter 170 km Impact velocity 10 km s Gravity 1 61m s 2 Target thermal gradient 50 K km The largest impact basin on the Moon is the South Pole Aitken SPA basin This impact structure located on the far side of the Moon is 2400 kilometers across which is greater than the radius of the Moon The following video illustrates the formation of this basin On impact a transient cavity forms as material is excavated or displaced from the impact site The cavity expands vertically and laterally before the floor of the cavity begins to rise after 7 minutes Despite this uplift the transient cavity does not reach its maximum volume until 9 minutes after impact At 15 minutes the rising crater floor has formed a central uplift that is higher than the original target surface The uplift continues to rise until 43 minutes after impact when it begins to collapse back into the Moon The uplift height may be artificially higher than that in the natural impact event because of the computer techniques employed During the rise of the central uplift the ejecta curtain formed by the excavated material begins to drape over the lunar surface creating an ejecta blanket The uplift has fully collapsed by 65 minutes The collapse sends shock waves across the lunar surface altering topography By 180 minutes the basin forming process is complete The impact has completely removed crustal material within a radius of 600 kilometers from the impact site leaving lunar mantle material exposed at the surface Further out excavated crustal and mantle material has been draped over the lunar crust to a radial distance of 1200 kilometers from the basin center The final basin diameter is 2400 kilometers South Pole Aitken SPA basin sized impact on the Moon Colors represent material beige crust gray mantle brown core Single click on the image to

    Original URL path: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/exploration/training/resources/impact_cratering/ (2016-02-15)
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