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  • Living State Physics
    Jr CV Marcella Woods CV Our Best Work Pictures papers and discussion of our most significant accomplishments Research Projects Cellular Biophysics Cardiac Electrodynamics Overview Fluorescence Imaging of Cardiac Action Potentials Panoramic Imaging of the Isolated Rabbit Heart Response of the Heart to Strong Electric Fields Real Time Control during Cardiac Defibrillation Gastrointestinal Smooth Muscle Overview Gastrointestinal Biomagnetism at Vanderbilt Link opens in new window Magnetometer Studies Links open in new window The Human Vector Magnetogastrogram and Magnetoenterogram Magnetoenterograhpy MENG Noninvasive Measurement of Bioelectric Activity in Human Small Intestine Noninvasive Diagnosis of Mesenteric Ischemia Using a SQUID Magnetometer Noninvasive Detection of Ischemic Bowel Superconducting Quantum Interference Device Magnetometer for Diagnosis of Ischemia Caused by Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis Correlation and comparison of magnetic and electric detection of small intestinal electrical activity Electrode Studies Links open in new window Effects of Mesenteric Ischemia and Reperfusion on Small Bowel Electrical Actvity Noninvasive Diagnosis of Mesenteric Ischemia Using a SQUID Magnetometer Superconducting Quantum Interference Device Magnetometer for Diagnosis of Ischemia Caused by Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis Correlation and comparison of magnetic and electric detection of small intestinal electrical activity Mathematical Modeling Links open in new window The Human Vector Magnetogastrogram and Magnetoenterogram Other Biomagnetic Measurements Fetal

    Original URL path: http://www.vanderbilt.edu/lsp/sitemap.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • Living State Physics
    Rev Lett 91 208104 1 208104 4 2003 Quatrefoil reentry in myocardium an optical imaging study of the induction mechanism Lin S F Roth B J Wikswo J P Jr Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 10 4 574 586 1999 Virtual electrodes in cardiac tissue a common mechanism for anodal and cathodal stimulation Wikswo J P Jr Lin S F Abbas R A Biophysical Journal 69 6 2195 2210 1995 Virtual cathode effects during stimulation of cardiac muscle Two dimensional in vivo experiments Wikswo J P Jr Wisialowski T A Altemeier W A Balser J R Kopelman H A Roden D M Circulation Research 68 2 513 530 1991 Abstract Only Current Injection into Two Dimensional Anisotropic Bidomain Sepulveda N G Roth B J Wikswo J P Jr Biophysical Journal 55 5 987 999 1989 Abstract Only Information Content SQUIDS Jenks W G Thomas I M Wikswo J P Jr in Encyclopedia of Applied Physics G L Trigg S Vera and W Greulich Eds VCH Publishers Inc Vol 19 457 469 1997 Magnetic field of a single muscle fiber First measurements and a core conductor model van Egeraat J M Friedman R N Wikswo J P Jr Biophysical Journal 57 3 663 667 1990 The effects of Spiral Anisotropy on the Electric Potential and the Magnetic Field at Apex of the Heart Roth B J Guo W Q Wikswo J P Jr Mathematical Biosciences 88 2 191 221 1988 Electrically Silent Magnetic Fields Roth B J Wikswo J P Jr Biophysical Journal 50 4 739 745 1986 Theoretical Aspects of the ECG MCG Relationship Wikswo J P Jr in Biomagnetism An Interdisciplinary Approach S J Williamson G L Romani L Kaufman and I Modena Eds Plenum New York 311 326 1983 Magnetic Field of a Nerve Impulse First Measurements Wikswo J

    Original URL path: http://www.vanderbilt.edu/lsp/obw.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • Living State Physics
    extracellular electrical conductivity and tissue architecture on the interaction between strong electric fields and cardiac tissue Why does the endocardial surface activate more rapidly during field stimulation than the epicardial surface Can a SQUID magnetometer be used to detect noninvasively life threatening disorders of the human small intestine such as regional ischemia and infarct as well as other clinically significant problems such as gastric and intestinal disarrhythmias Can scanning SQUID magnetometers be used to study the time course of injury currents during cardiac ischemia and wound currents following damage to other tissues We are also addressing a number of interesting questions in nonbiological systems What factors govern the production of magnetic fields by electrochemical corrosion activity and how can these magnetic fields be used to quantify the distribution array and response to environmental variables for hidden corrosion such as occurs in aluminum lap joints for aircraft Can SQUID magnetometers be used to map the stress distribution in composite materials loaded with magneto strictive materials What are the optimum design data acquisition and analysis techniques that would allow the SQUID magnetometers to detect crack and corrosion damage deep within aluminum aircraft structures What does SQUID mapping of magnetic inclusions in geological

    Original URL path: http://www.vanderbilt.edu/lsp/research.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • Living State Physics
    Eason Tulane University Dr Craig Henriquez Duke Computational Electrophysiology Dr Wanda Krassowska Duke Electrical Therapies Dr Natalia Trayanova Dr A T Winfree University of Arizona Cardiac Bioelectric Systems Laboratory at Johns Hopkins Center for Arrhythmia Research Oakland University Henry Ford Hospital OU HFH Neuromagnetism Laboratory Chemical and Physical Biology Program at Vanderbilt University Other Links Phil Nelson University of Pennsylvania University of Pennsylvania Soft Physics Journals Annals of Biomedical Engineering

    Original URL path: http://www.vanderbilt.edu/lsp/links.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • GIST Laboratory
    Richards 2008 Partial Mesenteric Ischemia Alters Biomagnetic Slow Wave Conference Proceedings Digestive Diseases Week San Diego 2008 W1289 T Cordova Fraga MR Gallucci B Berch LA Bradshaw WO Richards 2005 Biomagnetic study of ischemia induced in the sigmoidal segment of the intestine prelimiary results in Spanish Proceedings of the 28th Mexican National Congress of Biomedical Engineering 69 72 PDF LA Bradshaw 2004 Biomagnetic techniques for assessing gastric and small bowel electrical activity Medical Physics Proceedings of the 8th Mexican Symposium on Medical Physics M Vargas Luna G Gutierrez Juarez R Huerta Franco S Marquez Gamino eds American Institute of Physics PDF A Irimia LA Bradshaw JD Fouss 2002 Theoretical models and biomathematical algorithms for identifying multiple gastrointestinal dipoles Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Applied Modelling and Simulation November 2002 Cambridge Massachusetts PDF A Irimia 2002 Recursively applied scanning algorithms for inverse analyses of gastrointestinal biomagnetic fields Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Applied Modelling and Simulation November 2002 Cambridge Massachusetts PDF A Irimia 2002 Three dimensional simulations of gastric biomagnetic dipoles using recursive localization algorithms Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Applied Modelling and Simulation November 2002 Cambridge Massachusetts PDF S Scholz LA Bradshaw AG Myers WO Richards 2002 Noninvasive detection of ischemic bowel using a SQUID magnetometer Proceedings of the 2002 German National Surgical Conference PDF AG Myers LA Bradshaw JG McDowell WO Richards 2002 Magnetic vector analysis of gastrointestinal electrical control activity Proceedings of the Second Joint EMBS BMES Conference October 23 26 2002 Houston Texas 1728 1729 PDF LA Bradshaw JP Wiskwo 1999 Vector or scalar magnetometer arrays Proceedings of the First Joint BMES EMBS Conference Serving Humanity Advancing Technology Oct 13 16 1999 Atlanta Georgia USA 888 PDF LK Ladipo LA Bradshaw SS Hegde JP Wikswo WO Richards 1997 In vivo detection of normal and pathologic bowel electrical activity using a SQUID magnetometer Proceedings of the 19th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society PDF WO Richards LA Bradshaw 1998 Detection of intestinal ischemia using SQUID magnetometers Proceedings of the American Society for Nondestructive Testing Nashville Tennessee PDF LA Bradshaw JK Ladipo JP Wikswo WO Richards 1997 The vector magnetic field of the human stomach and small bowel Proceedings of the 19th Annual International Confer ence of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society PDF LA Bradshaw R Wells S Paul WO Richards JP Wikswo 1997 Noninvasive measurement of gastric propagation using a SQUID magnetometer Proceedings of the 19th International Conference of the IEEE EMBS Oct 30 Nov 2 1997 Chicago Illinois USA 2392 2393 PDF LA Bradshaw JP Wikswo 2000 Inverse imaging of distributed oscillatory activity Biomag96 Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Biomagnetism CJ Aine Y Okada G Stroink SJ Swithenby and CC Wood eds Springer Verlag New York 2 923 926 PDF DJ Staton SH Allos VK Henry LA Bradshaw JK Ladipo WO Richards JP Wikswo 1996 Noninvasive measurement of the vector magnetic field from human gastrointestinal sources Biomag96 Proceedings of the

    Original URL path: http://www.vanderbilt.edu/biomag/publications.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • SQUIDS
    as a starting point to any engineer or physicist who wishes to understand SQUIDs The principles of operation the methods of manufacture and the applications of SQUIDs are each discussed in turn The fundamental component of the SQUID is the Josephson junction essentially two superconductors weakly coupled through a small insulating gap or constriction The Josephson junction has unique electrical magnetic properties and when incorporated into a superconducting loop forms a SQUID The distinction is made between rf one junction in the loop and dc two junctions SQUIDs The flux locked loop is used in both cases to make the flux to voltage transduction linear Typically a superconducting pick up coil is used to funnel flux into the SQUID loop to increase the SQUID s voltage response The fabrication of conventional SQUIDs from low Tc metallic superconductors and the newer high Tc SQUIDs is discussed The low Tc SQUID are made principally of niobium by sputtering and photolithography They require a liquid Helium bath for cooling YBa2Cu3O7 x is the dominant material for high Tc SQUIDs which may be formed by pulsed laser deposition High Tc SQUIDs can operate when cooled by a liquid nitrogen bath The high Tc SQUIDs are cheaper to operate but at present are noisier than the low Tc SQUIDs The SQUID is but one part of the SQUID system which may be configured to sense one component of the magnetic field first and higher order derivatives of the magnetic field or even displacement of magnetic objects A superconducting pick up coil couples the SQUID to the ambient magnetic field and its design is determined by the planned applications Biomagnetic applications in magnetoencephalography magnetocardiography and elsewhere are discussed Other applications included in the text are geomagnetism nondestructive testing radio frequency amplification and the measurement of fundamental

    Original URL path: http://www.vanderbilt.edu/lsp/abstracts/jenks-eap-1997.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • Living State Physics
    SQUID Microscopy Vanderbilt Ultra High Resolution Scanning SQUID Microscope The design of the Vanderbilt SQUID Microscope SQUID Magnetomety Home back next Send questions and comments to LSP WebMaster

    Original URL path: http://www.vanderbilt.edu/lsp/sm.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • Living State Physics
    corrosion of military aircraft Specifically of interest is the hidden corrosion that can occur in critical components such as the lap joints in the fuselage where two overlapping sheets of metal are fastened together using rivets or spot welds While undergoing corrosion the magnetic fields produced by a spot welded lap joint are characteristically different to those produced by a riveted lap joint as shown below a b Magnetic map of corrosion activity in a a riveted lap joint and b a spot welded lap joint Red represents higher magnetic activity and blue represents no magnetic activity Note From one image to another the color scales are not normalised Red in image a does not necessarily represent the same absolute level of magnetic activity as red in image b We designed a methodology that takes advantage of the sensitivity and non invasiveness of SQUIDs to determine the effects of moisture and salt on lap joint specimens One common assumption valid in some instances is that an increasing amount of salt will increase the amount of corrosion To test this assumption in the instance of hidden corrosion within lap joints we exposed a set of lap joint specimens to a range of increasingly corrosive environments while the specimens were scanned by the SQUID Thus we were able to measure the magnetic fields associated with the corrosion caused by each environment The environments we used were humid air distilled water and then three increasingly concentrated salt solutions The difference in concentration between each salt solution was a factor of ten We did not expect that humid air would generate much magnetic activity and this was borne out in our experiments There was a significant increase in the magnetic activity going from humid air to distilled water Comparison of magnetic activity versus time

    Original URL path: http://www.vanderbilt.edu/lsp/press.htm (2016-02-16)
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