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  • News and Announcements - Division of Research
    nutrition and food science in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at Wayne State University will study the effects of a daily supplement of a Tocotrienol rich fraction from palm oil to see if it improves dyslipidemia a disorder of lipoprotein metabolism that may be manifested by a decrease in the good high density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol in patients with ESRD who are on hemodialysis Tocotrienols are a form of Vitamin E and have been shown in recent years to have diverse health effects In addition Khosla s team will explore the impact on symptoms such as inflammation and symptoms related to Restless Leg Syndrome in the same cohort of patients Khosla believes that the supplement will also act as an anti inflammatory and antioxidant nutrient leading to improved nutritional status lipid profiles and inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in the ESRD patients The three year study funded by a 2 4 million grant from the Malaysian Palm Oil Board a premier government agency of Malaysia will take place in multiple dialysis centers in the United States and Malaysia The cross collaboration will allow the investigators to evaluate differences in dietary patterns of 800 dialysis patients in the two countries With the patient pool in Michigan of predominantly African Americans and Caucasians and the Malaysian cohort comprised of three distinct ethnicities Malays Chinese and Indians the investigators hope to shed light on possible genetic and metabolic differences in the dialysis populations Additionally as a significant proportion of dialysis patients suffer from Restless Legs Syndrome an unpleasant tingling or cramping sensation that impacts the quality of life the investigators hope to shed some light on the underlying causes for the condition End stage renal disease patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis experience a higher risk of complications such as cardiovascular disease dyslipidemia

    Original URL path: http://research.wayne.edu/news.php?id=17266 (2016-02-13)
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  • News and Announcements - Division of Research
    drug rosiglitazone sold as the diabetic medication Avandia in stimulating a placental signaling channel to halt severe preeclampsia Drewlo is exploring a novel signaling pathway within the placenta that when altered with rosiglitazone can restore normal vascular function preventing preeclampsia in pregnant mothers Preeclampsia a sudden increase in blood pressure after the 20th week of pregnancy is the leading cause of fetal and maternal death worldwide Women not killed by preeclampsia can suffer lifelong health problems from the condition Indicated by a sudden increase in blood pressure and protein in the urine preeclampsia warning signs in addition to elevated blood pressure can include headaches swelling in the face and hands blurred vision chest pain and shortness of breath While the condition can manifest within a few hours some women report few or no symptoms The condition is responsible for 76 000 maternal deaths and more than 500 000 infant deaths annually according to estimates from the Preeclampsia Foundation The condition occurs only during pregnancy Some mothers develop seizures eclampsia and suffer intracranial hemorrhage the main cause of death in those who develop the disorder The babies of preeclamptic mothers may develop intrauterine growth restriction or die in utero Severe preeclampsia Drewlo explained is believed to stem from the placenta since the only available cure is delivery of the fetus In severe cases early fetal delivery is necessary leading to preterm birth which carries a host of long term complications for the infant At the molecular level Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma or PPAR γ a transcription factor and a nuclear receptor is primarily known for its role in lipid metabolism Researchers have shown that PPAR γ also regulates lineage differentiation in trophoblast stem cells in mice through the control of glial cell missing 1 or GCM 1 a protein coding gene in the placenta The trophoblast stem cells provide nutrients to the embryo and develop into a large portion of the placenta The expression of GCM 1 has been shown to affect the formation of new blood vessels in embryos which can result in preeclampsia Drewlo has found that when PPAR γ in placental development in mice was stimulated by rosiglitazone preeclampsia like symptoms were reduced At the same time inhibiting PPAR γ induced preeclampsia like features Rosiglitazone in diabetics binds PPAR receptors in fat cells making them more responsive to insulin We hypothesize that human trophoblast differentiation is regulated by the PPARγ GCM1 axis which can be pharmacologically activated to improve placental and in turn maternal endothelial function Drewlo said The ultimate goal of the proposed research program is to improve pregnancy outcome by restoring placental and maternal vascular function in severe preeclampsia Drewlo said that in pregnancy PPAR γ oversees the release of factors that inhibit the growth of new blood vessels through a GCM 1 dependent pathway Preliminary studies in human placental explants suggest that PPAR γ directly controls trophoblast differentiation by regulating the expression of GCM 1 PPAR γ activation with rosiglitazone significantly decreased the secretion

    Original URL path: http://research.wayne.edu/news.php?id=17242 (2016-02-13)
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  • News and Announcements - Division of Research
    model of MS pathology July 1 2015 The National Multiple Sclerosis Society has provided a grant to a Wayne State University School of Medicine professor to explore a new model of MS pathology Alexander Gow Ph D the Charles H Gershenson Distinguished Fellow Professor and associate director of the WSU Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics will use the three year 663 959 grant for his study Neurodegeneration associated with metabolic stress in oligodendrocytes From the early mid phases of MS Dr Gow said the clinical symptoms are caused by considerable damage to the brain in the forms of autoimmune lesions atrophy in the white matter and gray matter of the brain and cognitive deficits Most studies to date have focused on finding disease modifying therapies for the autoimmune component of MS but have tended to ignore the cognitive changes which can be the most debilitating and frustrating aspects for patients and caregivers Several important findings have come to light in recent years he said including the revelation that strong immunosuppression of patients for several years only modestly slows MS progression while damage to cortical brain regions continues and is widespread In this study we tackle both of these issues using a new model of MS pathology that does not involve autoimmune stimulation to generate disease symptoms said Dr Gow who also is a professor of Pediatrics and of Neurology for WSU Rather we activate metabolic stress in oligodendrocytes to cause dysfunction and death of these cells which is a potential disease mechanism that has gained experimental support from several laboratories Oligodendrocytes are a type of cell that produce a membrane called myelin that coats axons the pathways by which the brain sends messages to the muscles Dr Gow will seek to determine whether this nonimmune mediated animal model can

    Original URL path: http://research.wayne.edu/news.php?id=17216 (2016-02-13)
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  • News and Announcements - Division of Research
    States These gardens offer a source of free or inexpensive healthy food for the public and educate community members about food production and rehabilitating the local ecosystem The revolution of urban agriculture has the potential to address many economic environmental and personal health issues With urban agriculture gaining popularity for improving local and sustainable food systems the question of food safety has become a growing concern To ensure the safety and sustainability of this food supply there is a need for more information on physical chemical and biological contamination in urban agricultural environments particularly contaminants such as heavy metals antibiotics pesticides foodborne bacteria and more A team of researchers led by Wayne State University has recently launched an initiative to determine the prevalence of contaminants in urban agriculture soil in Detroit establish linkages among the contaminants and identify the agricultural risk factors for the contamination The team was recently awarded more than 293 000 from the National Institute of Food and Agriculture of the United States Department of Agriculture for the project An integrated approach to ensuring food safety and sustainability in urban agriculture in the greater Detroit area Their goal is to provide urgently needed information on physical chemical and biological contamination in urban agricultural environments Our work will open up new research directions tailored to an urban institution yet still address important agricultural issues said Yifan Zhang assistant professor of nutrition and food science in Wayne State s College of Liberal Arts and Sciences In addition our work will provide us with an opportunity to develop outreach materials based on our research findings to provide communities with guidance on how to grow food safely and in a sustainable manner The project aims to have a significant impact on research education and outreach in food and agricultural sciences Data

    Original URL path: http://research.wayne.edu/news.php?id=17172 (2016-02-13)
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  • News and Announcements - Division of Research
    School of Medicine duo and a team of international investigators have for the first time pinpointed a mutation that allows a lymphoblastic leukemia precursor to set the biochemical stage for the blood disorder ALL is a blood cancer that attacks an early version of white blood cells manufactured in bone marrow Investigators have long suspected that it is caused in part by a mutation in a gene that is supposed to turn off excessive blood cell growth When the mutation suppresses the controlling mechanism that regulates the runaway growth leukemia is often the result The study Germline mutations in ETV6 are associated with thrombocytopenia red cell macrocytosis and predisposition to lymphoblastic leukemia began nearly a decade ago when Dr Rajpurkar treated a child at the Children s Hospital of Michigan for low blood platelets known medically as congenital thrombocytopenia When both the child and an aunt later developed ALL even as several other family members were diagnosed with thrombocytopenia Dr Rajpurkar began to suspect that there might be a genetic mutation at work in the family What followed was a 10 year journey through the labyrinth of the Human Genome as the researchers worked with a growing number of genetic investigators to isolate and identify the mutation in a gene ETV6 that regulates growth rates in bone marrow A key breakthrough in the quest for the genetic culprit took place when a nationally recognized expert in gene mutation University of Colorado physician researcher Jorge DiPaola M D joined Drs Rajpurkar and Callaghan and other investigators from Italy and Canada in the effort to solve the DNA puzzle by uncovering the flaw in ETV6 The mutation discovery occurred in a core facility where the gene sequencing took place While noting that our findings underscore a key role for ETV6 in platelet formation and leukemia predisposition the study s authors concluded that the mutation occurs through aberrant cellular localization of the gene which can result in decreased transcriptional repression during white blood cell formation What we think that means Dr Callaghan said is that ETV6 s job is to turn off growth but when you have this mutation it can t turn it off because it s in the wrong place It s usually supposed to sit on the DNA and keep things including cancer from getting made but when you have this mutation instead of sitting on the DNA it s sitting in a different part of the cell And that predisposes you to getting a blood cancer Dr Rajpurkar who is also the division chief of Hematology at the Children s Hospital of Michigan and an associate professor of Pediatrics at the Wayne State University School of Medicine said she was greatly pleased that her decade of treating the Detroit family with the mutation eventually led to the breakthrough I told them that I didn t know what the family had she said but that I would do my best to find out Sometimes one has to accept uncertainty in

    Original URL path: http://research.wayne.edu/news.php?id=17142 (2016-02-13)
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  • News and Announcements - Division of Research
    Institutes Starting a Center Institute Center Institute Review Review Committees Undergraduate Research The Graduate School The Front Door for Business Engagement IBio Research Home News and Announcements Return to News List Wayne State University engineering professor receives prestigious DOE early career grant June 8 2015 DETROIT The Department of Energy s DOE s Office of Science recently announced its selection of 50 scientists from across the nation to receive its Early Career Research Program award Eranda Nikolla Ph D assistant professor of chemical engineering in Wayne State University s College of Engineering was selected out of 620 submissions to receive a five year 750 000 award for her proposal Nanostructured Targeted Layered Metal Oxides as Active and Selective Heterogeneous Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Evolution Nikolla will pursue work that will lead to development of efficient catalysts for energy generation and storage She aims to combine computational tools with nanoscience and catalysis to design nanostructured nonprecious metal oxide electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution a key reaction in electrochemical energy conversion systems such as generation of H 2 from water The proposed work will have a significant impact on the development of efficient energy conversion systems It is a great honor that our research was recognized by the U S Department of Energy with a 2015 Early Career Research Award said Nikolla The funded work will have a significant impact in the field by providing fundamental insights that can guide the design of nonprecious metal oxide systems for electrocatalysis The DOE s Early Career Research Program now in its sixth year aims to bolster the nation s scientific workforce by providing support to exceptional researchers during their early career years when many scientists do their most important work Dr Nikolla was awarded this prestigious grant from the Department of Energy for her transformative research

    Original URL path: http://research.wayne.edu/news.php?id=17078 (2016-02-13)
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  • News and Announcements - Division of Research
    impact is difficult to predict subjectively and manually and depends on extensive clinical experience and highly sharpened vigilance Errors in anesthesia decisions while infrequent can occur even with experienced personnel and the resulting impact ranges from minor consequences to serious morbidity or even mortality While anesthesia has gotten much safer over the years there is still a need for improved health monitoring systems during surgery The technology System for Identifying Patient Response to Anesthesia Infusion developed by a collaborative team at Wayne State uses smart real time monitoring of patients under anesthesia to provide individualized and dynamic prediction of a patient s anesthesia depth and vital signs give physicians an early warning if vital signs are predicted to go above the standard threshold and help anesthesiologists make decisions for targeted anesthesia depths during surgery Our smart anesthesia monitoring system allows physicians to look into the near future prediction of a patient s vitals and make decisions that are more objective timely and accurate said Le Yi Wang Ph D professor of electrical and computer engineering in WSU s College of Engineering The core of our technology is a novel information processing methodology that uses measured drug rates physiological signals and real time data analysis to establish and update individual patient models The WSU team consisting of L Y Wang Hong Wang M D professor of anesthesiology in the School of Medicine and Gang George Yin Ph D professor of mathematics in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences have blended their unique mathematical engineering and medical backgrounds to develop this system With financial support from The Michigan Economic Development Corporation under its MUCI Michigan Universities Commercialization Initiative program a prototype of the system has been successfully developed and tested with commercial anesthesia monitoring systems The advantages of our smart anesthesia

    Original URL path: http://research.wayne.edu/news.php?id=17011 (2016-02-13)
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  • News and Announcements - Division of Research
    regional economies Attracting Fostering and Inspiring Talent for the Global Economy a study released today at the Detroit Regional Chamber s Mackinac Policy Conference reports that the URC ranks first in medical degrees second in advanced degrees in high tech fields such as engineering and sciences first in total degrees awarded and first in enrollment among eight top research university clusters in the U S Why are all of these degrees especially the advanced and medical degrees so important Because they meet employers needs support high tech entrepreneurship generate tax dollars and provide access to higher quality health care and enhanced quality of life for all Michigan residents said Jeff Mason executive director of the URC The URC universities which account for 93 percent of all academic R D in Michigan boast worldwide networks of more than 1 2 million living alumni more than half of them living in Michigan and comprising a third of the state bachelor s degree holders and advanced degree holders 25 and over For this report we considered talented individuals as the central focus of the economy of the future and examined the role Michigan s research universities play in creating attracting and nurturing that talent said Patrick Anderson of Anderson Economic Group author of the report Our three Carnegie classified highly intensive research institutions are not only retaining world class talent but actively recruiting skilled individuals from around the globe putting Michigan on the map for research and innovation said Michigan State University President Lou Anna K Simon URC talent embodies a depth and breadth of skills that are essential in our ever changing global economy Because of the comprehensive nature and diversity of opportunities at URC universities graduates from the schools attribute broad based skills desired by employers including communication critical thinking leadership

    Original URL path: http://research.wayne.edu/news.php?id=17001 (2016-02-13)
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