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  • News and Announcements - Division of Research
    503 newly elected fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science AAAS announced Jan 11 2011 Christine Chow Ph D professor of chemistry in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and resident of Detroit was selected for distinguished research on the structure and function of modified nucleic acids and for excellence in the teaching of chemistry Chow is leading a research team in developing a novel strategy to get an edge over bacteria s relentlessly evolving defense mechanisms With strains of some bacteria being completely resistant to every known drug her team is working to create something new that isn t easy for bacteria to resist Chow is focusing on ribonucleic acid or RNA a nucleic acid that consists of a long chain of nucleotide units chemically similar to DNA Organisms from bacteria to humans and beyond depend on RNA s functions which makes RNA an incredibly useful target for antibiotics RNA is more chemically and structurally diverse than other target areas and has an abundance of unique structures for an antibiotic to latch on to Chow explained It is also more accessible than DNA and doesn t have the defense enzymes that protect DNA and comprises the physical structure of the ribosome RNA protein complexes found in all living organisms By targeting the bacteria cell s ribosome with compounds the bacteria has never seen before Chow hopes to come up with ways to fight bacteria where resistance mechanisms take longer to develop Chow and her team are hard at work looking for a drug to combat bacteria Our hope is to find a lead compound something that could potentially lead to an antibiotic or the design of other new drugs said Chow Christine has always been a first rate researcher a great teacher and a very

    Original URL path: http://research.wayne.edu/news.php?id=5550 (2016-02-13)
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  • News and Announcements - Division of Research

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    Original URL path: /news.php?id=5531 (2016-02-13)


  • News and Announcements - Division of Research
    one Wayne State University researcher will find out whether hypertension management can be added to that list Lorraine Buis Ph D assistant professor of nursing in the College of Nursing and resident of Ann Arbor Mich received a 297 224 grant from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to develop and test a text messaging system that will remind Detroit area African Americans with uncontrolled hypertension to take their blood pressure medication In medication management studies we often focus on introducing patients to new devices such as wrist watches or pill bottles with alarms Buis said One of the things I find most exciting about this project is that we are leveraging a communication device that is already thoroughly integrated into people s daily lives High blood pressure is a major public health concern and the leading cause of cardiovascular disease worldwide The problem is particularly onerous for African Americans who are disproportionately more susceptible to high blood pressure than non Hispanic white Americans Poor adherence to prescribed medication regimens contribute to the difficulty in managing the condition Across the board medication adherence is dismal with an estimated 50 percent of individuals with hypertension not taking their medicine as prescribed Buis said Our hope is to find a simple system that can help patients remember to take their blood pressure medicine By improving medication adherence we hope to see improvements in hypertension related outcomes Buis and collaborators will conduct focus groups with the study s target population obtaining feedback that will guide the development of a mobile phone text messaging system The efficacy of the system will be assessed in a pilot test The primary goal of the study is to determine whether participants have had a change in their medication adherence after one month Secondary goals are to

    Original URL path: http://research.wayne.edu/news.php?id=5529 (2016-02-13)
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  • News and Announcements - Division of Research
    years Other studies have revealed that being obese in early childhood increases the risk for later childhood obesity and could lead to other obesity related health problems like heart disease asthma high blood pressure and cancer According to the U S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention childhood obesity in this country has more than tripled in the past 30 years Moss in collaboration with William H Yeaton from the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor published their analysis Young Children s Weight Trajectories and Associated Risk Factors Results from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort ECLS B in the January February 2011 issue of the American Journal of Health Promotion The ECLS B draws from a representative sample of American children born in 2001 with diverse socioeconomic and racial ethnic backgrounds It is one of the first studies to monitor weight status changes of a nationally representative sample of very young children For their study Moss and Yeaton used results from ECLS B to follow the trajectory of the infants weight status at 9 months and 2 years then performed statistical analyses to examine whether weight persistence loss or gain was linked to demographic characteristics such as sex race ethnicity geographic region or socioeconomic status Children with weight for height above the 95th percentile on standard growth charts were considered obese children in the 85th to 95th percentile were considered at risk for obesity Some of their results show that 31 9 percent of 9 month olds were at risk or obese 34 3 percent of 2 year olds were obese or at risk for obesity 17 percent of the infants were obese at 9 months rising to 20 percent at 2 years 44 percent of the infants who were obese at

    Original URL path: http://research.wayne.edu/news.php?id=5512 (2016-02-13)
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  • News and Announcements - Division of Research

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    Original URL path: /news.php?id=5511 (2016-02-13)


  • News and Announcements - Division of Research
    years ago it was proposed that the genetic information within cells flows from DNA to RNA to protein This concept was dubbed the central dogma of molecular biology Transmission of genetic information from DNA to RNA is called transcription the primary step at which gene expression is regulated The process of transcription is regulated in a number of ways in different cell types In 2005 Ansari was one of the first researchers to show that genes exist in a looped conformation and gene looping could be an important transcription regulatory mechanism in eukaryotic cells During transcription RNA blueprints are made using DNA strands as templates RNA polymerase II is the molecular tool that carries out the transcription from template to blueprint in eukaryotic cells Ansari found that RNA polymerase II transcribes a looped rather than a linear DNA template in certain eukaryotic cells Using the Chromosome Conformation Capture approach developed at Harvard and uniquely modified by Ansari for his experiments he observed that during transcription DNA elements located at the two ends of a gene called the promoter and terminator physically interact to form a loop When a loop forms transcription efficiency increases exponentially After publicizing these findings others found that the HIV gene forms a gene loop and the gene loop is important for its transcription said Ansari Gene looping was also observed during transcriptional of BRCA1 the gene that s often mutated in breast cancer cell lines But Ansari s most recent and unexpected finding is that an initiation factor called TFIIB which facilitates gene looping occurs in a complex with a number of termination factors called a holo TFIIB complex No one was expecting that so we had to do a lot of experiments and use different approaches and all gave us the same result said Ansari

    Original URL path: http://research.wayne.edu/news.php?id=5496 (2016-02-13)
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  • News and Announcements - Division of Research
    Office of the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs Of 120 research project submissions only eight received such grants The project overseen by Dr Loeb and Dr Song will test a new drug HBD S H4 or GlyB4 in mice with the symptoms of multiple sclerosis to determine its effects in disrupting neuregulin1 NRG1 is a brain produced protein that regulates many normal functions in the brain but may also have effects on immune system activation The protein could serve as a potential therapeutic target for disorders such as multiple sclerosis The drug was entirely developed by our group at Wayne State University and the core technology behind the drug is protected by patents worldwide said Dr Loeb who also serves with the WSU Hiller Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Center It is a novel targeted antagonist to the growth factor neuregulin that has potential uses in diseases that vary from chronic pain to cancer It is unique because it uses the same targeting system developed by nature to get drugs where they are needed in the body and not harm other areas Dr Loeb will serve as the principal investigator of Therapeutic Value or Harm of Neuregulin 1 in Demyelinating Disorders and Dr Song will serve as co investigator In multiple sclerosis the body s immune system attacks the brain and gradually destroys it typically over many years The brain for the most part can be divided into gray and white areas Neurons are located in the gray area and the white parts are where the neurons send their axons similar to electrical cables carrying messages to communicate with other neurons or muscles The white parts of the brain are white because oligodendrocyte cells manufacture a cholesterol rich membrane called myelin that coats the axons The myelin s function is to insulate

    Original URL path: http://research.wayne.edu/news.php?id=5508 (2016-02-13)
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  • News and Announcements - Division of Research
    programs in various Michigan K 8 schools as a part of the Safe Route to School SR2S program I am passionate about this program because it is so heavily geared toward children s safety Datta said The infrastructure improvements that our group will develop along with the accompanying educational programs have the potential to improve the safety of children walking and bicycling to school anywhere in Michigan for many years to come The national Safe Routes to School program was created in 2005 with the objective of making it safe convenient and fun for children to bicycle and walk to school Safe routes initiatives also help ease traffic jams and air pollution unite neighborhoods and contribute to students readiness to learn in school In fall 2010 the National Safe Routes to School program allocated 11 million for statewide and local SR2S program activities bringing the total funding to date to 559 million At least 10 204 schools across the U S have benefitted or will benefit from these funds The Michigan Department of Transportation announced in August that 14 Michigan elementary and middle schools in eight counties will receive more than 1 8 million in federal Safe Routes to School funding for safety improvements and education programs Funding will be used for infrastructure improvements such as new sidewalks and traffic calming projects and non infrastructure activities that encourage and enable students to walk and bicycle to school Many schools in Michigan were built decades ago when student travel patterns and vehicle traffic volumes were much different Gates said Infrastructure improvements are necessary to facilitate and encourage safe travel for children going to and from school We are excited to assist the SR2S chosen schools in identifying problems and implementing improvements The WSU TRG will assess site specific factors at schools

    Original URL path: http://research.wayne.edu/news.php?id=5491 (2016-02-13)
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