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  • Division of Research - Research Communications - News Release
    not neurotoxic Cocaine prolongs dopamine actions in the brain by blocking the re absorption re uptake of the neurotransmitter dopamine by signaling nerve cells Methamphetamine also blocks the re uptake of dopamine but it also increases the release of dopamine from the storage vesicles into the cytosol and subsequently into the synapse the gap between neurons Released dopamine readily autoxidizes triggering oxidative stress and toxicity to dopaminergic nerve terminals The grant Proteasome and Parkin as Drug Targets Against Methamphetamine Toxicity aims to better understand the molecular mechanisms regulating the ubiquitin proteasome system in animal brains exposed to high doses of methamphetamine and to determine whether two components of this system the proteasome and E3 ligase parkin are potential pharmaceutical drug targets that can be used to promote neuronal survival and recovery after administration of high doses of methamphetamine According to Anna Moszczynska Ph D assistant professor of pharmaceutical sciences in the Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences and principal investigator on the grant functions of both proteasome and parkin are decreased in the rat striatum a brain region rich in dopamine shortly after administration of high doses of the drug Augmentation of their functions may lead to novel neuroprotective strategies to combat methamphetamine neurotoxicity and other brain disorders involving damage to the striatum such as Parkinson s disease The research proposed in the R01 grant will test the hypothesis that augmentation of parkin and proteasome function after chronic or binge methamphetamine will promote survival and or recovery from neurotoxicity of the drug Findings from the proposed research may lead to novel neuroprotective therapeutic strategies to combat methamphetamine neurotoxicity and other brain disorders involving damage to the brain s dopaminergic system such as Parkinson s disease Despite years of active research on methamphetamine neurotoxicity no specific medications have been

    Original URL path: http://research.wayne.edu/communications/news-release.php?id=423&y=2014&m=01 (2016-02-13)
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  • Division of Research - Research Communications - News Release
    United States Geological Survey USGS and the Environmental Protection Agency are working together to battle this problem This invasion of zebra mussels and quagga mussels have caused dramatic ecological effects on the Great Lakes ecosystems including changes in fish abundance local extinction of native mussels and profound changes in benthic invertebrates organisms that live on the bottom of bodies of water that are important to decomposition of organic matter and more With the help of a grant from the United States Geological Survey USGS scientists from Wayne State University are heading up research to help identify a chemical found in algae that may inhibit spawning in the invasive zebra and quagga mussels The research led by Donna Kashian Ph D assistant professor of biological sciences in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and Jeffrey Ram professor of physiology in the School of Medicine will work to identify these chemical cues released by algae and determine how they can be used to develop an ecological scale control strategy to disrupt reproduction Our preliminary research has demonstrated that algae produce chemicals that can stimulate or inhibit zebra and quagga mussels spawning said Kashian The stimulatory chemicals may be the normal triggers of spawning that signal when conditions are amenable to larval development whereas the inhibitory algal chemicals may be protective or toxic signals that prevent predation by mussel adults and larvae Because of this preliminary research they are working to identify and deploy algal chemicals which are potentially species specific natural products to regulate mussel reproduction to reduce their populations at ecosystem scales Instead of focusing on toxic non specific chemicals to kill mussels such as those used in water treatment facilities and power stations we hope inhibit them by natural chemical cues released by algae that ultimately will disrupt reproduction

    Original URL path: http://research.wayne.edu/communications/news-release.php?id=422&y=2014&m=01 (2016-02-13)
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  • Division of Research - Research Communications - News Release
    to Ed Cackett Ph D assistant professor of physics astronomy in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences for the project Reflection and reverberation in neutron star low mass X ray binaries According to Cackett neutron stars are extreme stars about the mass of the sun but only the size of a city containing ultra dense material many times the density of an atomic nucleus These stars are so dense that the velocity needed to escape a neutron star s gravity is about 30 percent of the speed of light said Cackett Cackett studies these stars in binary systems where a sun like star orbits a neutron star He will apply cutting edge techniques to understand how the strong gravity around these objects pulls material from the companion star toward it a process known as accretion This NSF award also will allow Cackett to develop a program to provide access to solar telescopes to metro Detroit area schools to add a hands on daytime observing aspect to their science curricula In addition he will provide curricular materials and conduct workshops for high school teachers for this program as well as review all astronomy topics in the high school science standards

    Original URL path: http://research.wayne.edu/communications/news-release.php?id=421&y=2014&m=01 (2016-02-13)
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  • Division of Research - Research Communications - News Release
    team s research explained in a paper titled The Potential for Metering to Help Roundabouts Manage Peak Period Demands in the U S super circles are common in Australia and England but have yet to be researched or implemented in the U S The research team built and tested a mathematical model of traffic flow through super circles Roundabouts such as those at 25 Mile Road at Hayes Road in Macomb County and M 5 at Pontiac Trail in Oakland County have been implemented in the United States for some time Hummer says when built correctly they are 30 to 40 percent safer than traditional signalized intersections and offer a 60 percent injury savings The one classic dilemma with roundabouts though is that some have capacity issues during peak hours Once they break down they get ugly and lock up Our research was trying to find a way to get the safety benefits of a traditional roundabout while creating a capacity treatment for the peak hours of the day he says A super circle involves adding a stop light to one approach of a roundabout to control the number of vehicles entering during rush hours The meter would only operate during peak hours and would free up space in the circle for the busiest traffic streams to enter he says The rest of the day with the meter turned off the roundabout would do its job saving collisions Here in Michigan Hummer can envision utilizing super circles in a number of places Michigan is really well suited to metered roundabouts I could find hundreds of places of these in Metro Detroit alone at the junctions of the mile roads says Hummer They aren t suitable for the huge arterials like Woodward Gratiot or 8 Mile but would work almost anywhere

    Original URL path: http://research.wayne.edu/communications/news-release.php?id=420&y=2014&m=01 (2016-02-13)
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  • Division of Research - Research Communications - News Release
    Khan M D professor and chair of neurology at the Wayne State University School of Medicine Patients in the United States can now benefit from an improved dosing regimen without compromising the known benefits of Copaxone The study was published in the Annals of Neurology a leading clinical neuroscience journal and the official publication of the American Neurological Association Dr Khan a member of the Wayne State University Physician Group is the global principal investigator of the Glatiramer Acetate Low Frequency Administration or GALA study The study investigated a new dose and frequency of glatiramer acetate Copaxone in patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis The study demonstrated that glatiramer acetate given in 40 mg doses subcutaneously three times a week is at least as effective as daily injections in achieving the drug s immunologic effect and therapeutic efficacy The FDA approval is based on data from the Phase III GALA study of more than 1 400 patients which showed that the higher dose injected three times a week significantly reduced relapse rates at 12 months and demonstrated a favorable safety and tolerability profile in patients with relapsing remitting MS Glatiramer acetate commercially known as Copaxone and produced by Teva Pharmaceuticals had been approved by the FDA for the treatment of relapsing forms of MS at a dose of 20 mg subcutaneously daily It is the most prescribed medication for the treatment of MS with annual worldwide sales exceeding 3 5 billion Medical experts estimate that more 2 million people in the world more than 500 000 in the U S 30 000 in Michigan and 16 000 in metropolitan Detroit have MS The Wayne State University MS Center is considered amongst the five largest MS centers in the country with more than 4 000 patients This study provides confirmation of

    Original URL path: http://research.wayne.edu/communications/news-release.php?id=418&y=2014&m=01 (2016-02-13)
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  • Division of Research - Research Communications - News Release
    groups like crickets Ubx is responsible for creating a jumping hind leg In others such as bees it makes a pollen basket a naked bristle free leg region that creates a space for packing pollen Other studies have shed some light on this gene s role in this realm but our team examined in great detail how the modifications take place added Zachary Huang MSU entomologist Ubx represses the development of bristles on bees hind legs creating a smooth surface that can be used for packing pollen This important discovery can be used as a foray into more commercial studies focused on providing means to enhance a bee s pollination ability the bigger the pollen basket the more pollen that can be packed in it and transported back to the hive While workers have these distinct features queens do not The team confirmed this by isolating and silencing Ubx This made the pollen baskets completely disappear altered the growth of the pollen comb and reduced the size of the pollen press Interestingly Ubx is also expressed in the same region of the hind legs in bumble bees which are in the same family as honey bees This finding suggests that the evolution of the pollen gathering apparatus in all corbiculate bees may have a shared origin and could be traced to the acquisition of novel functions by Ubx In another interesting finding researchers identified that bees living in more complex social structures have an advantage over isolated populations in developing these important functions The pollen baskets are much less elaborate or completely absent in bees that are less socially complex Huang said We conclude that the evolution of pollen baskets is a major innovation among social insects and is tied directly to more complex social behaviors The value of agricultural

    Original URL path: http://research.wayne.edu/communications/news-release.php?id=419&y=2014&m=01 (2016-02-13)
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  • Division of Research - Research Communications - News Release
    disease in which plaque builds up inside the arteries Atherosclerosis can lead to serious problems including heart attack stroke or even death The team of researchers discovered that a unique combination of vitamin E isomers known as tocotrienols improved the patients lipid profiles The study Vitamin E tocotrienol supplementation improves lipid profiles in chronic hemodialysis patients was published in a recent issue of the journal Vascular Health Risk Management and showed that patients in the randomized double blind placebo controlled parallel trial who were given the vitamin E supplement had notable improvement in their lipid profiles compared to those given the placebo After 12 and 16 weeks of intervention the hemodialysis patients taking the Vitamin E supplements showed significant improvements in their blood lipid profiles said Pramod Khosla Ph D associate professor of nutrition food science in Wayne State University s College of Liberal Arts and Sciences Specifically their triglycerides were reduced and their HDL cholesterol levels increased as compared to the placebo group This study could potentially have positive clinical implications in the future for hemodialysis patients that need to improve their triglyceride and HDL levels but first these findings need to be verified in a much larger group of subjects Additionally we need to tease out the interactive effects of the tocotrienols with various medications that are routinely prescribed to these patients added Khosla Accelerated cardiovascular disease is a major problem in the end stage renal disease population and these findings may lead to new approaches to understanding its pathophysiology and to treatment commented James Sondheimer M D associate professor of internal medicine in Wayne State s School of Medicine A multicenter trial to confirm these findings and determine clinical significance is clearly called for Sondheimer was not involved in the study In addition to this study Khosla

    Original URL path: http://research.wayne.edu/communications/news-release.php?id=417&y=2014&m=01 (2016-02-13)
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  • View Profile - Nano@Wayne - Division of Research
    and interfaces computational and experimental work supercritical fluids AFM particle engineering biopolymers in vitro cell particles and in vivo drug delivery Resources The da Rocha lab has 1 an AFM equipped with a coherent laser and liquid cells Molecular Imaging PICO LE system 2 X ray system Rigaku including SAXS capabilities shared da Rocha co PI 3 Waters Alliance HPLC GPC system with UV Vis RI and Fluorescence detectors 4 Spray Dryer Buchi B290 5 a computer controlled LB monolayer deposition system with cooling heating control KSV Minitrough 6 Tensiometers contact angle goniometers two KSV CAM200 both have been adapted to work either at ambient or high pressure 7 a water purification system Barnstead Nanopure Diamond 8 UV Vis spectrometer both ambient and high pressure capabilities 9 equipment for aerosol particle size determination in vitro lung deposition ACI industry standard for inhalation formulations with vacuum pump and flow controller 10 filling and crimping devices for metered dose inhalers 11 a low and a high pressure densitometer Paar 12 variable volume pressure cells 13 pressure cells for small angle X ray and neutron scattering in liquids 14 computer controlled high pressure pumps ISCO Waters 2 15 high pressure generators 3 HIP

    Original URL path: http://research.wayne.edu/nano/bio.php?id=42876 (2016-02-13)
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