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  • News and Announcements Archive - Nano@Wayne - Division of Research
    page book discusses novel approaches and applications that have unraveled a new understanding of the cell and its impact on biology medicine and health care The book according to the publisher is intended to familiarize readers with major developments in the field of nanotechnology novel imaging methods and new discoveries related to understanding the cell The book also provides a comprehensive understanding of the discovery of a new cellular structure identified as the porosome Discovered by Jena 15 years ago the porosome is the universal secretory machinery in cells Secretion is a fundamental cellular process that occurs in all living organisms Cell secretion is responsible for numerous activities including neurotransmission and the release of hormones and digestive enzymes Secretory defects are responsible for a number of debilitating conditions including growth defects diabetes and neurological disorders Jena s work has focused primarily on the molecular machinery and mechanism underlying cell secretion His discovery of the porosome has revolutionized understanding of the secretory process in cells He and his team have further determined the structure and dynamics of the porosome its isolation and composition and its functional reconstitution in lipid membrane His studies demonstrate for the first time that following a secretory

    Original URL path: http://research.wayne.edu/nano/news_archive.php?id=12185 (2016-02-13)
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  • News and Announcements Archive - Nano@Wayne - Division of Research
    Data from these studies challenge current dogma in the area of oral drug delivery wrote the scientists including lead authors Joshua Reineke a Brown graduate and assistant professor of pharmaceutical sciences in the Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences at Wayne State University and Daniel Cho a student in the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University With this new insight especially if it can be expanded replicated and shown in people drug designers could consider targeting future biodegradable drug containing microspheres to reach enterocytes in addition to M cells said corresponding author Edith Mathiowitz professor of medical science and engineering at Brown The new research in PNAS helps explain where and how microspheres are absorbed by the intestine Absorb and go seek The researchers performed several experiments to track microsphere absorption in the rat models For some rats they administered the spheres by mouth In other rats they injected them directly into one or the other of the intestine s main sections the ileum and the jejunum Among the rats they also varied the sphere sizes After waiting an hour or five hours they tracked down the spheres to see how many were absorbed and what tissues they had reached Across the many combinations of size location means of administration and time the intestines took up between 10 and 50 percent of spheres Although by no means evenly in each case the bloodstream distributed absorbed spheres to a wide variety of tissues including the brain and lungs and more commonly the liver Enter the enterocytes Via microscopes the researchers could see red fluorescing microspheres passing through enterocytes Further more systematic evidence for the role of enterocytes and their absorption via endocytosis came from another experiment where researchers used a variety of agents that block endocytosis When they did so as for instance with 1 micrometer spheres in the ileum where both M cells and enterocytes can be found absorption dropped to between 5 and 15 percent of spheres from more than 32 percent in rats where the process was not blocked an agent that blocked both endocytosis and phagocytosis blocked the most Absorption dropped even more dramatically in the jejunum where there are no M cells falling to a range between 3 and 10 percent compared to more than 45 percent in rats with normal endocytosis Enterocytes may therefore play not only an important role but perhaps a bigger role than M cells We need to know what the intestine is doing and where the particles go Mathiowitz said This is the first time that we have quantified the process as well as documented biodistribution to specific organs In order to be able to consider and translate the technology to humans we also need to verify the reproducibility of the process in different animal species The most predominant cell in the intestinal tract enterocytes are involved in particle uptake said Reineke If properly exploited it may lead to new and improved oral therapies In addition advancing these

    Original URL path: http://research.wayne.edu/nano/news_archive.php?id=12156 (2016-02-13)
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  • News and Announcements Archive - Nano@Wayne - Division of Research
    as an appropriate management strategy for low risk localized prostate cancer to decrease the harms of overtreatment Xu said The study will identify determinants of treatment choice in men with low risk localized prostate cancer including the factors that affect the offer acceptance and adherence of active surveillance as an initial management strategy Localized cancer means there is no sign it has spread outside the prostate Four out of five prostate cancers are found at this stage according to the National Cancer Institute Active surveillance involves delaying treatment until test results show the cancer is growing or changing The cancer is checked regularly such as every three to six months at first Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non skin cancer in men in the United States One in six men will received the diagnosis in their lifetime according to the most recent data available from the National Institutes of Health The 10 year relative survival rate is 98 percent according to the American Cancer Society Active surveillance offers the opportunity to delay or avoid curative treatment and associated side effects unless the cancer progresses said Xu Current practice guidelines identify active surveillance as an appropriate initial management strategy for low risk localized prostate cancer However active surveillance is rarely chosen and little research has addressed the reasons why men with low risk prostate cancer receive aggressive treatment rather than active surveillance In addition while black men historically have received less aggressive prostate cancer treatment than whites they also report having more decision making difficulty decision regret and poorer quality of life African American men are twice as likely as Caucasian men to die from prostate cancer according to the NCI The team also will survey urologists to understand how and why treatment decisions are made with a focus

    Original URL path: http://research.wayne.edu/nano/news_archive.php?id=12125 (2016-02-13)
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  • News and Announcements Archive - Nano@Wayne - Division of Research
    professor and chair of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering will develop equations text and software so that the Michigan left turn and three other alternative designs can be included in the next edition of the Highway Capacity Manual used by highway designers According to Hummer numerous research efforts and publications on alternative intersections and interchanges sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration FHWA have taken place in the last decade to enable analysis and deployment of alternative intersections and interchanges Unfortunately most of the analysis of alternative intersections and interchanges to this point involved the use of microscopic simulations that are expensive and time consuming said Hummer The Highway Capacity Manual and the Highway Capacity Software a widely used deterministic statistical equation based analysis tool have simpler and quicker procedures for conventional intersections and interchanges but none for alternative designs The alternatives have not been included to date due to the complex nature of traffic flow across multiple segments and junctions when compared to more conventional intersections and interchanges according to Hummer In collaboration with researchers from North Carolina State University University of Florida and Virginia Tech Hummer will lead the group to develop credible procedures for four designs the double crossover diamond interchange the displaced left turn intersection the restricted crossing U turn intersection and the median U turn or Michigan left turn intersection These procedures will be included in the next version of the Highway Capacity Manual and the Highway Capacity Software Our team has great expertise in alternative intersections and interchanges Highway Capacity Manual procedures development of computational engines data collection techniques intersection and interchange operational analysis techniques statistical methods simulation and calibration techniques and developing concise and user friendly guidance for a national audience of transportation and public safety practitioners said Hummer This experience will

    Original URL path: http://research.wayne.edu/nano/news_archive.php?id=12098 (2016-02-13)
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  • News and Announcements Archive - Nano@Wayne - Division of Research
    and in 2012 I m excited for three reasons First I enjoyed my participation and felt able to contribute meaningfully to applications in my area of expertise Second having progressed in my career and having had my own grants reviewed by this study section I feel it s time to return the favor of serving prominently as a reviewer for others Third now that we find ourselves in a more competitive environment for grant funding it is advantageous to have an insider s look at the evolving review process which may help our faculty and students gain leverage in their upcoming applications Dr Greenwald who also serves as director of the WSU Substance Abuse Research Division has been a member of the WSU faculty since 1995 He was nominated for membership by the former head of the study section who invited him to serve as a reviewer during last year s grant review Study sections review NIH grant applications make recommendations to the appropriate national advisory councils and survey the status of research in their respective fields Members said Richard Nakamura Ph D director of the Center for Scientific Review are selected on the basis of their demonstrated competence and achievement in their scientific discipline as evidenced by the quality of research accomplishments scientific publications and other achievements and honors The Biobehavioral Regulation Learning and Ethology Study Section reviews applications related to basic biobehavioral processes and adaptation across the lifespan It primarily considers research with non human animals but relevant work with humans also is included Although the focus is on behavior studies also may consider related neural hormonal and genetic factors Dr Greenwald will be a scientific reviewer with special expertise in neuropsychopharmacology addiction substance use disorders behavioral economics behavioral modification stress and pharmacogenetics Dr Greenwald is an internationally

    Original URL path: http://research.wayne.edu/nano/news_archive.php?id=12087 (2016-02-13)
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  • News and Announcements Archive - Nano@Wayne - Division of Research
    regard and the study could not have been conducted without their incredible level of cooperation Menopause and hot flashes are a significant women s health issue of widespread general interest Diwadkar added However understanding of the neural origins of hot flashes has remained poor The question has rarely been assessed with in vivo functional neuroimaging In part this paucity of studies reflects the technical limitations of objectively identifying hot flashes while symptomatic women are being scanned with MRI Nothing like this has been published because this is a very difficult study to do During the course of a single year 20 healthy symptomatic postmenopausal women ages 47 to 58 who reported six or more hot flashes a day were scanned at the School of Medicine s Vaitkevicius Imaging Center located in Detroit s Harper University Hospital The researchers collected skin conductance levels to identify the onset of flashes while the women were being scanned Skin conductance is an electrical measure of sweating The women were connected to a simple circuit passing a very small current across their chests Diwadkar said Changes in levels allowed researchers to identify a hot flash onset and analyze the concurrently acquired fMRI data to investigate the neural precedents and correlates of the event The researchers focused on regions like the brain stem because its sub regions such as the medullary and dorsal raphe are implicated in thermal regulation while forebrain regions such as the insula have been implicated in the personal perception of how someone feels They showed that activity in some brain areas such as the brain stem begins to rise before the actual onset of the hot flash Frankly evidence of fMRI measured rise in the activity of the brain stem even before women experience a hot flash is a stunning result When

    Original URL path: http://research.wayne.edu/nano/news_archive.php?id=12018 (2016-02-13)
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  • News and Announcements Archive - Nano@Wayne - Division of Research
    1 Mediates the Sensory Influence on C elegans Physiology and Lifespan has been supported by the Novartis Research Foundation and a grant from the Swiss National Science Foundation based on results that the team published in the journal PLoS Biology in 2010 Although Alcedo s data suggest that NMUR 1 is required to process specific food derived information in influencing lifespan the precise mechanisms involved remain unclear Thus she aims to understand the mechanisms through which the receptor mediates the sensory influence on lifespan and alters C elegans physiology in a food source dependent manner Discovering a role for NMUR 1 in affecting C elegans lifespan through the type of diet provides a genetic framework for clarifying how specific food cues as well as the sensory system influence lifespan Since this receptor is also found in humans understanding how it affects C elegans lifespan may lead us to understand how a similar pathway could function within us Alcedo said This could suggest that the large repertoire of neuropeptides and their receptors in C elegans and other animals serve to process distinct environmental information into physiological responses that would optimize survival Alcedo believes her studies may also yield much needed insight into how different types of diet contribute to age related diseases like obesity and diabetes such diseases presumably involve the deregulation of specific activities of different neuropeptide signaling pathways In a related study Two Insulin like Peptides Antagonistically Regulate Aversive Olfactory Learning in C elegans published in the journal Neuron in February Alcedo s team in collaboration with the team of Yun Zhang at Harvard University found that specific insulin like peptides regulate distinct processes such as learning versus development in different ways For example they can act opposite from each other in certain cases or synergistically in others Previous

    Original URL path: http://research.wayne.edu/nano/news_archive.php?id=11972 (2016-02-13)
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  • News and Announcements Archive - Nano@Wayne - Division of Research
    has enhanced the dignity and status of the profession Huang received the award which was presented during the 95th annual SUR FIN Conference in Illinois in June for his key theoretical contributions to the surface finishing industry Specifically he was recognized for his novel theories and methodologies which establish a fundamental basis for proactive process waste minimization in electroplating lines help solve large scale hazardous toxic chemical focused source reduction in an diverse industrial zone where supply chain management is a key integrate technologies that can maximize the economic environmental and social sustainability performance in metal finishing plants and possibly for the first time evaluate the pathways for the electroplating industry for its sustainable development through synergistically working with other manufacturing sectors Huang was also recognized for his professional leadership experience with the American Electroplating and Surface Finishing AESF Foundation his extensive list of journal articles and book publications and his efforts in technology development which resulted in 12 technologies developed since 2000 He has received many honors including the American Institute of Chemical Engineers Research Excellence in Sustainable Engineering Award in 2010 and the Michigan Green Chemistry Governor s Award in 2009 which honored his research on engineering sustainability with successful industrial applications In 2008 he was designated a Fulbright Scholar by the U S Department of State On behalf of the entire Wayne State University College of Engineering community I congratulate Dr Huang on this prestigious award said College of Engineering Dean Farshad Fotouhi New materials and advanced manufacturing is a major area of focus for the college and Dr Huang s innovative work and expertise will continue to have significant implications on industry and in academia most notably perhaps in the lives of our students for many years to come Huang is currently serving as director for

    Original URL path: http://research.wayne.edu/nano/news_archive.php?id=11964 (2016-02-13)
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