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  • Women and Twentieth-Century Protestantism | Wheaton
    Further Reading and Research Links ISAE Projects Women and Twentieth Century Protestantism Women and Twentieth Century Protestantism The Women and Twentieth Century Protestantism project was a three year program of historical research that generated a fresh and systematic look at women in different Protestant settings in the period from 1890 to the present Menu A Movement for the 21st Century The Future of Evangelicalism The Worlds of Billy Graham People of Faith Changes in American Protestant Missions The Changing Face of American Evangelicalism Confessional Traditions in American Christianity Hymnody in American Protestantism The Financing of American Evangelical Religion Missionary Impulse in North American History Women and Twentieth Century Protestantism The project begun in 1995 was directed by Margaret Lambers Bendroth and Virginia Lieson Brereton It was based at Andover Newton Theological School and funded by The Pew Charitable Trusts The Institute for the Study of American Evangelicals served as the publication and logistical arm of the Project A concluding three day conference was held in 1998 at the University of Chicago s Gleacher Center and sixteen selected scholars presented their papers in five moderated panel sessions Women and 20th Century Protestantism by Virginia Brereton and Margaret Bendroth was published from

    Original URL path: http://www.wheaton.edu/ISAE/Projects/Women-and-Twentieth-Century-Protestantism (2016-02-17)
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  • Defining Evangelicalism | Wheaton
    commonly the gospel During the Reformation Martin Luther adapted the Latinized form of the term evangelium dubbing his breakaway movement the evangelische kirche or evangelical church a name still generally applied to the Lutheran Church in Germany In the English speaking world however the modern term usually describes the religious movements and denominations which sprung forth from a series of revivals that swept the North Atlantic Anglo American world in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries Key figures associated with these revivals included the itinerant English evangelist George Whitefield 1715 1770 the founder of Methodism John Wesley 1703 1791 and American philosopher and theologian Jonathan Edwards 1703 1758 These revivals were particularly responsible for the rise of the Baptists and Methodists from obscure sects to their traditional position as America s two largest Protestant denominational families By the 1820s evangelical Protestantism was by far the dominant expression of Christianity in the overwhelmingly Protestant United States The concept of evangelism revival codified streamlined and routinized by evangelists like Charles G Finney 1792 1875 became revivalism as evangelicals set out to convert the nation By the decades prior to the Civil War a largely evangelical Benevolent Empire in historian Martin Marty s words was actively attempting to reshape American society through Bible and tract distribution the establishment of Sunday Schools and through such reforms as temperance the early women s movement various benevolent and betterment societies and most controversial of all the abolition movement After the war the changes in American society wrought by such powerful forces as urbanization and industrialization along with new intellectual and theological developments began to weaken the power of evangelicalism within American culture Likewise evangelical cultural hegemony was diminished in pure numeric terms with the influx of millions of non Protestant immigrants in the latter 19th and

    Original URL path: http://www.wheaton.edu/ISAE/Defining-Evangelicalism (2016-02-17)
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  • Defining the Term in Contemporary Times | Wheaton
    doctrines and practical emphases British historian David Bebbington approaches evangelicalism from this direction and notes four specific hallmarks of evangelical religion conversionism the belief that lives need to be changed activism the expression of the gospel in effort biblicism a particular regard for the Bible and crucicentrism a stress on the sacrifice of Christ on the cross Bebbington s definition has become a standard baseline for most scholars However some consider his broad categories so inclusive that they would exclude few Christians of any stripe Historian George M Marsden has suggested a fifth characteristic trans denominationalism which takes into account evangelicals pragmatic penchant for cooperation in support of shared projects and evangelistic efforts A second sense of the term is to look at evangelicalism as an organic group of movements and religious tradition Within this context evangelical denotes a style as much as a set of beliefs and an attitude which insiders know and feel when they encounter it As a result groups as disparate as black Baptists and Dutch Reformed Churches Mennonites and Pentecostals Catholic charismatics and Southern Baptists can all come under the evangelical umbrella demonstrating just how diverse the movement really is A third sense of the term is as the self ascribed label for a largely Midwest based coalition that arose during the Second World War This group came into being as a reaction against the perceived anti intellectual separatist belligerent nature of the fundamentalist movement in the 1920s and 1930s Importantly its core personalities like Carl F H Henry Harold John Ockenga and Billy Graham institutions for instance Moody Bible Institute Wheaton College and Fuller Theological Seminary and organizations such as the National Association of Evangelicals and Youth for Christ have played a pivotal role in giving the wider movement a sense of cohesion that

    Original URL path: http://www.wheaton.edu/ISAE/Defining-Evangelicalism/Defining-the-Term (2016-02-17)
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  • Fundamentalism | Wheaton
    which restores a sense of descriptive cohesion Fundamentalism was a movement that arose in the late 19th and early 20th centuries within American Protestantism reacting against modernist theology and biblical criticism as well as changes in the nation s cultural and social scene Taking its name from The Fundamentals 1910 1915 a twelve volume set of essays designed to combat Liberal theology the movement grew by leaps and bounds after World War I During the 1920s fundamentalists waged a war against modernism in three ways by unsuccessfully attempting to regain control of Protestant denominations mission boards and seminaries by supporting with mixed success Prohibition Sunday blue laws and other measures defending traditional Protestant morality and sensibilities and fairly successfully by attempting to stop the teaching of evolution in the public schools a doctrine which they saw as inextricably linked to the development of German higher criticism and the source of the Great War This last strategy resulted in the infamous Scopes Trial fiasco of 1925 later fictionalized in the highly inaccurate play and film Inherit the Wind in which a substitute biology teacher in Dayton TN was charged with illegally teaching evolution to his class The circus atmosphere of the resultant trial pitting Presbyterian layman former Secretary of State and three time Democratic presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan for the prosecution against the famed Chicago criminal defense lawyer Clarence Darrow discredited the movement in the eyes of America s intellectual and media elites resulting in fundamentalism s subsequent disappearance from the nation s cultural stage Since the 1940s the term fundamentalist has come to denote a particularly aggressive style related to the conviction that the separation from cultural decadence and apostate read liberal churches are telling marks of faithfulness to Christ Most self described fundamentalist churches today are conservative separatist

    Original URL path: http://www.wheaton.edu/ISAE/Defining-Evangelicalism/Fundamentalism (2016-02-17)
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  • Pentecostalism and the Charismatic Movement | Wheaton
    While the early revivals associated with these individuals occurred in respectively Kansas and Texas California and the mountains of Tennessee and North Carolina the news of a new outpouring of God s Spirit spread quickly in North America and almost simultaneously spread or was reported overseas Most distinctive about this movement was an exuberant worship style and the experience of glossolalia speaking in tongues which was seen as a return to the apostolic experience of the Book of Acts and the biblical Baptism of the Holy Spirit While the Pentecostal movement was traditionally associated with the impoverished margins of American culture particularly among Southern whites and blacks its influence began to spread during the 1950s through the visibility of healing evangelists like Oral Roberts groups like the Full Gospel Business Men s Fellowship and the migration of large numbers of Southern Protestants to the Midwest and Pacific Coast By the 1960s pentecostal ideas and style began to surface in the mainline Protestant churches officially beginning in 1960 when Dennis Bennett an Episcopal priest in Van Nuys California announced to his congregation that he had spoken in tongues This new Charismatic movement quickly spread to other mainline denominations and by the mid 60s to the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Churches The movement s visibility and networks were further strengthened by the success of the Pentecostal leaning Jesus People movement among American youth in the late 60s and 70s In the 1980s a vigorous independent network of Charismatic churches and organizations at times described as the Third Wave emerged including churches such as the Vineyard Christian Fellowship In the 1990s a wave of new revivals characterized by such manifestations as holy laughter and associated with the Toronto Airport Fellowship and Brownsville Assembly of God in Pensacola Florida were highly influential within Pentecostal

    Original URL path: http://www.wheaton.edu/ISAE/Defining-Evangelicalism/Pentecostalism (2016-02-17)
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  • How Many Evangelicals Are There? | Wheaton
    with problems As the discussion about the intricacies of definition above would indicate the framing of the definition or wording of survey questions are important variables that can produce varying results Until a massive definitive study is undertaken estimates of the number of evangelicals in the United States therefore are just that estimates One frequently relied upon casual benchmark over the years has been an attempt to define evangelicals as those that label themselves as born again Between 1976 and 2005 the Gallup organization asked roughly 1 000 adults some permutation of the question Would you describe yourself as a born again or evangelical Christian In that first survey 34 of the people being surveyed responded yes Over the years the number fluctuated dramatically reaching a low of 33 in 1987 and 1988 during the televangelist scandals and a high of 48 in 2005 Overall the numbers have averaged just under 39 of the population See Gallup poll results Obviously describing one s self as born again as the definitive benchmark for identifying evangelical believers makes for a problematic statistical tool the term evangelical is even less reliable in one study only 75 of Southern Baptists accepted either term For a variety of reasons some groups and individuals which scholars would describe as in the team picture simply do not use those words to describe themselves Unfortunately attempts to use very tight definitional and behavioral criteria church attendance prayer Bible reading evangelism etc also prove frustrating because they ignore a very real slice of the American population which can only be described as cultural evangelicals Similar in many ways to non practicing Catholics these lapsed evangelicals do not show up as particularly pious or devout in studies that measure conventional religious behavior But when these individuals do evidence any interest

    Original URL path: http://www.wheaton.edu/ISAE/Defining-Evangelicalism/How-Many-Are-There (2016-02-17)
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  • The National Association of Evangelicals | Wheaton
    Bulletin Resources ISAE Publications Further Reading and Research Links ISAE Defining Evangelicalism NAE The National Association of Evangelicals Menu Defining the Term Fundamentalism Pentecostalism How Many Are There NAE Politics The Media End Times Historically one of the defining organizations within modern American evangelicalism is the National Association of Evangelicals NAE Founded in 1942 the NAE serves as an umbrella organization that attempts to represent evangelical interests and views on a wide ranging assortment of spiritual social cultural and political issues Including local congregations from 50 member denominations as well as individual churches from 24 other Protestant denominations the NAE estimates that it represents a constituency of about 30 million people Nonetheless it cannot be said that the NAE in any way serves as an authoritative or even well known factor in the secular or religious lives of the vast majority of evangelicals in the United States For this reason although it continues to provide a venue for discussion among evangelical leaders and serves as the closest thing resembling a representative voice for the nation s evangelicals the NAE s influence has been on the wane since the 1980s Records for the NAE covering the period 1941 2000 can be

    Original URL path: http://www.wheaton.edu/ISAE/Defining-Evangelicalism/NAE (2016-02-17)
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  • Evangelicals and Politics | Wheaton
    the most visible aspect of this new political sensibility was the appearance of right wing organizations like the Moral Majority and Concerned Women for America This new Religious Right was credited with playing a major role in the Reagan Revolution of 1980 and the ironic ouster of the evangelical President Carter for the much less obviously pious Reagan In retrospect it now seems clear that the part these organizations played in this outcome was not as great as either the news media or conservative evangelicals once believed Unarguably however there was a new evangelical interest in political participation which subsequently gave birth to a new generation of Religious Right organizations such as the Christian Coalition The reasons for this resurgence are many including a natural desire to have a positive impact on culture and society a subtle indication perhaps of the decline of some types of evangelical prophetic interpretations that emphasized an imminent Second Coming concern over abortion and changing sexual mores in society and dissatisfaction with the content direction and power of the mass media and popular culture However what seems to have been the single overarching factor has been the post WWII expansion of the Federal Government into areas and responsibilities that were previously the domain of the state and local government the individual the family and the church Yet it must be made clear that there is no monolithic consensus among evangelicals on politics any more than there is on theological matters While the movement is conservative in many regards there are many evangelicals who would identify their political orientation as liberal or progressive and some like the Sojourners community in Washington D C who are leftist in nature In terms of party affiliation the movement has been traditionally perceived as Republican This impression however reflects a

    Original URL path: http://www.wheaton.edu/ISAE/Defining-Evangelicalism/Politics (2016-02-17)
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