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  • July « 2012 « CIMSS Satellite Blog
    product images Posted in AVHRR GOES sounder GOES 13 Lightning POES Severe convection Suomi NPP VIIRS No Comments Tornado near Mt Evans Colorado July 28th 2012 GOES 15 left and GOES 13 right 10 7 µm IR channel images A tornado was observed and photographed near Mt Evans in north central Colorado around 2 51 PM local time or 20 51 UTC Local Storm Report on 28 July 2012 A comparison of McIDAS images of 4 km resolution GOES 15 GOES West and GOES 13 GOES East 10 7 µm IR channel data above showed that the thunderstorm which produced the tornado developed fairly rapidly just to the east of Copper Mountain station identifier KCCU but was relatively small in size and did not exhibit particularly cold cloud top IR brightness temperatures 40º C at 20 45 UTC and 52º C at 21 15 UTC AWIPS images of 1 km resolution MODIS 0 6 µm visible channel and 11 0 µm IR channel data at 20 28 UTC below showed that the storm was beginnng to produce a few negative cloud to ground lightning strikes with a minimum IR brightness temperature around 50º C at that time MODIS 0 65 µm visible and 11 0 µm IR channel images with cloud to ground lightning strikes The CIMSS Cloud Top Cooling Rate product below did flag the storm at 20 32 UTC as it was beginning to develop in north central Colorado GOES 13 instantaneous Cloud Top Cooling Rate product Posted in GOES 13 GOES 15 MODIS Severe convection No Comments Saharan dust over South Florida and the adjacent offshore waters July 25th 2012 GOES 13 0 63 µm visible channel images McIDAS images of GOES 13 0 63 µm visible channel data above showed the hazy signature of a dense veil of airborne Saharan dust over South Florida and the adjacent offshore waters of the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean on 25 July 2012 This particular major pulse of Saharan dust began to move westward across the Atlantic Ocean during mid July A closer view using an AWIPS image of Suomi NPP VIIRS 0 64 µm visible channel data below also showed the hazy signature of the dust over the southeastern portion of the satellite scene A pilot reported flight visibility of 4 to 5 statute miles within the dust layer over the Florida Keys Suomi NPP VIIRS 0 64 µm visible channel image Pilot reports A comparison of the VIIRS 0 64 µm visible image with the corresponding VIIRS 11 45 µm IR image below demonstrated that there was no dust signal at that particular IR wavelength due to the fact tht an elevated dust layer is generally transparent to thermal radiation from the land and ocean surfaces below Suomi NPP VIIRS 0 64 µm visible channel 11 45 µm IR channel images The VIIRS Aerosol Optical Thickness product below showed a strong signal yellow to red color enhancement over that region due to the presence of

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/date/2012/07 (2012-11-14)
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  • June « 2012 « CIMSS Satellite Blog
    derecho event below also available as a QuickTime movie The GOES 13 satellite had been placed into Rapid Scan Operations RSO providing images as frequently as every 5 10 minutes during much of the life cycle of the storm GOES 13 10 7 µm IR channel images click image to play animation In addition a McIDAS V combination of GOES 13 10 7 µm IR images and CAPE derived from overpasses of the Suomi NPP CrIS and the Aqua AIRS instruments below image courtesy of Joleen Feltz showed that the derecho was moving toward pockets of instability that were in place along the trough axis that was oriented from southwest to northeast along the East Coast Plotted in yellow are the surface wind gusts of 80 mph or greater associated with the derecho GOES 13 IR CAPE from Suomi NPP CrIS and Aqua AIRS Posted in AVHRR Aviation GOES sounder GOES 13 Lightning McIDAS V MODIS POES Severe convection Suomi NPP VIIRS No Comments Western US wildfires June 28th 2012 GOES 15 0 63 µm visible channel images click image to play animation Numerous wildfires continued to burn across much of the western US into late June due to a combination of moderate to extreme drought high temperatures and strong winds McIDAS images of 1 km resolution GOES 15 0 63 µm visible channel data above click image to play animation showed large smoke plumes from the more significant fires that were burning in Montana and Wyoming on 27 June 2012 The GOES 15 satellite had been placed into Super Rapid Scan Operations SRSO mode providing bursts of imagery at 1 minute intervals The smoke plume from the fire burning in southwestern Wyoming was remarkably long and was lofted high enough to easily pass over the Wind River Range of mountains which has a number of peaks over 13 000 feet or 1362 meters A pilot report mentioned that the top of the smoke layer extended to 34 000 feet 250 meter resolution MODIS true color and false color Red Green Blue RGB images from the SSEC MODIS Today site below showed greater detail of the thick smoke plume passing over the Wind River Range as well as the large hot spots pink color enhancement on the false color image associated with the actively burning fires MODIS true color and false color RGB images AWIPS images of 4 km resolution GOES 13 3 9 µm shortwave IR data below click image to play animation showed the hot spots associated with some of the larger fires in Utah Wyoming and Montana as they burned through the following night GOES 13 3 9 µm shortwave IR channel images click image to play animation A comparison of a 4 km resolution GOES 13 3 9 µm shortwave IR image with the corresponding 1 km resolution MODIS 3 7 µm shortwave IR image below demonstrated the advantage of higher spatial resolution for detecting the heat signatures from the smaller fires as well as more

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/date/2012/06 (2012-11-14)
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  • May « 2012 « CIMSS Satellite Blog
    true color Red Green Blue RGB images from the SSEC MODIS Today site below click image to play animation displayed the variability in smoke plume size and direction as the fire continued to grow after 15 May Much of the thicker smoke was confined to higher altitudes but some smoke did settle into the boundary layer and create air quality problems downwind of the fire complex Daily MODIS true color Red Green Blue RGB images click image to play animation A night time AWIPS comparison of Suomi NPP VIIRS 3 74 µm shortwave IR and 0 7 µm Day Night Band DNB images below revealed the ring of hot spots red to yellow to black pixels on the shortwave IR image and the glow of the active fires bright white on the DNB image around the periphery of the large fire complex The lights of the surrounding cities and towns could also be seen on the DNB image Suomi NPP VIIRS 3 74 µm shortwave IR and 0 7 µm Day Night Band images 01 June Update A relatively thin veil of smoke on 01 June 2012 as seen on the 250 meter resolution MODIS true color image allowed the size of the Whitewater Baldy fire burn scar to be revealed on the corresponding MODIS false color Red Green Blue RGB image below MODIS true color and false color Red Green Blue RGB images Posted in Air quality Fire detection GOES 13 MODIS Red Green Blue RGB images Suomi NPP VIIRS No Comments Tropical Storm Beryl May 28th 2012 Daily MODIS 0 65 µm visible channel images 25 26 27 and 28 May A sequence of four AWIPS images of 1 km resolution MODIS 0 65 µm visible channel data during the 25 May 28 May 2012 period above showed the various stages of development of Subtropical Tropical Storm Beryl as it slowly intensified over the far western Atlantic Ocean and eventually made landfall across northeastern Florida Beryl was the first Tropical Storm to make landfall in the US during the month of May since Tropical Storm Arlene back in 1959 As Beryl made the transition from Subtropical Storm to Tropical Storm on 27 May McIDAS images of 1 km resolution GOES 13 0 63 µm visible channel data below click image to play animation showed convective bands becoming more organized and wrapping around the center of the system GOES 13 0 63 µm visible channel images click image to play animation A comparison of AWIPS images of 1 km resolution Suomi NPP VIIRS 0 64 µm visible channel and 11 45 µm IR channel data below showed Beryl a few hours before it was classified a Tropical Storm on 27 May Suomi NPP VIIRS 0 64 µm visible 11 45 µm IR channel images Posted in GOES 13 MODIS Suomi NPP Tropical cyclones VIIRS No Comments Older Entries Webmaster Follow us on Search for Pages About this site CIMSS Satellite Proving Ground Contact us Mobile users POES AVHRR in

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/date/2012/05 (2012-11-14)
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  • April « 2012 « CIMSS Satellite Blog
    of the 1 km resolution POES AVHRR 0 63 µm visible channel image with the corresponding 10 8 µm IR channel image below again showed great detail in the overshooting top and cloud top thermal couplet structure POES AVHRR 0 63 µm visible channel image 10 8 µm IR channel image A comparison of the 1 km resolution POES AVHRR 10 8 µm IR channel image with the corresponding 4 km resolution GOES 13 10 7 µm IR image below demonstrates the value of higher spatial resolution for detecting important cloud top temperature patterns In this case the coldest cloud top IR brightness temperature on the POES AVHRR image was 78º C compared to 69º C on the GOES 13 IR image Also note the slight northward parallax shift in the GOES 13 IR image GOES 13 10 7 µm IR channel image POES AVHRR 10 8 µm IR channel image Posted in AVHRR GOES sounder GOES 13 POES Severe convection No Comments Using VIIRS imagery for snow ice vs cloud discrimination over Alaska the Arctic Ocean and the Bering Sea April 26th 2012 Suomi NPP VIIRS 0 64 µm visible channel 1 61 µm near IR channel images AWIPS images of 1 km resolution Suomi NPP VIIRS 0 64 µm visible channel and 1 61 µm near IR channel images above demonstrated the value of using the near IR imagery to help discriminate between snow ice which appears darker on the near IR image and supercooled water droplet cloud features which appear as brighter shades of white on the near IR image over northern Alaska and the Arctic Ocean on 23 April 2012 Numerous large leads or cracks in the Arctic Ocean sea ice are apparent on the visible channel image Many of the cloud features over the Arctic Ocean were thin and at a low altitude so there was not a great deal of thermal contrast seen on the corresponding 11 45 µm IR image below Suomi NPP VIIRS 1 61 µm near IR channel 11 45 µm IR channel images Three days later on 26 April 2012 a similar comparison of a Suomi NPP VIIRS 0 64 µm visible channel image with the corresponding 1 61 µm near IR image below showed that much of the ice in the Bering Sea was beginning to break up although a significant amount of land fast ice remained along the western coastline of Alaska The near IR image also helped to highlight other interesting features along the far left edge of the satellite scene aircraft contrails over Nunivak Island and a thin trail of wave clouds extending downwind of St Matthew Island Suomi NPP VIIRS 0 64 µm visible channel 1 61 µm near IR channel images GOES 15 0 63 µm visible channel images click image to play animation An animation of 1 km resolution GOES 15 0 63 µm visible channel images above click image to play animation showed the motion of the southern extent of the ice

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/date/2012/04 (2012-11-14)
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  • March « 2012 « CIMSS Satellite Blog
    13 3 9 µm shortwave IR images below revealed how quickly the fire hot spot black to yellow to red color enhancement grew in size GOES 15 GOES 13 3 9 µm shortwave IR images An AWIPS comparison of a 1 km resolution POES AVHRR 3 7 µm shortwave IR image with the corresponding 4 km resolution GOES 13 3 9 µm shortwave IR image just after 02 UTC or 8 pm local time below demonstrated the advantage of higher spatial resolution for more accurately identifying the location and areal coverage of the fire POES AVHRR 3 7 µm GOES 13 3 9 µm shortwave IR images A larger scale HD format view of GOES 13 0 63 µm visible channel images below click image to play animation revealed other interesting features across the region such as 1 a large blowing dust plume oriented from southwest to northeast across Colorado 2 a terrain induced standing wave cloud over southwestern Colorado 3 the development of a line of thunderstorms across eastern Wyoming and 4 another smaller blowing dust plume across eastern Idaho Animated GIF courtesy of Tim Schmit NOAA ASPB CIMSS GOES 13 0 63 µm visible channel images click image to play animation Posted in AVHRR Fire detection General interpretation GOES 13 GOES 15 POES No Comments Suomi NPP VIIRS true color imagery March 26th 2012 Suomi NPP VIIRS true color Red Green Blue RGB image After the Suomi NPP satellite had experienced an anomaly and gone into a sun pointing safe mode on 24 March all the satellite instruments began to successfully recover by 26 March 2012 Shown above is a 750 meter resolution true color Red Green Blue RGB image from the VIIRS instrument acquired via the Direct Broadcast ground station at the Space Science and Engineering Center at the University of Wisconsin Madison image courtesy of Liam Gumley SSEC A number of interesting features can be seen in the image including 1 the break up of ice in Hudson Bay and James Bay in Canada 2 smoke plumes from fires burning across parts of the southeastern US and 3 the outflow of sediment rich water from the mouth of the Mississippi River and other rivers into the Gulf of Mexico Posted in General interpretation Suomi NPP VIIRS No Comments Older Entries Webmaster Follow us on Search for Pages About this site CIMSS Satellite Proving Ground Contact us Mobile users POES AVHRR in AWIPS SatePedia Suomi NPP JPSS Proving Ground VISIT SHyMet Training Topics March 2012 M T W T F S S Feb Apr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Categories Air quality Antarctic Arctic AVHRR Aviation AWIPS II Calibration Anomalies Cloud Top Cooling Convective Initiation Fire detection Fog detection General interpretation GOES sounder GOES 10 GOES 11 GOES 12 GOES 13 GOES 14 GOES 15 GOES R Google Earth Heavy rain

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/date/2012/03 (2012-11-14)
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  • February « 2012 « CIMSS Satellite Blog
    3 9 micrometer image because the sun emits so much more radiation at that wavelength The Imager band most affected is the visible band click here to see two contaminated and uncorrected and one clean image the images above are at night Options to deal with the stray light errors included 1 Send all imagery regardless of solar position contamination and let users decide 2 Cancel images if the sun is within 6 degrees currently or 10 degrees of the frame boundary 3 Scan away from the sun for example scan only the Northern Hemisphere if the solar contamination is in the Southern Hemisphere during the Spring eclipse season and 4 Apply an L1B algorithmic correction to minimize stray light in the images prior to GVAR broadcast Option 4 has been implemented for GOES 13 Currently option 3 is being implemented for GOES 15 3 9 micrometer images showing stray light contamination left and corrected version right The figure above shows a 3 9 micrometer image with a significant amount of stray light contamination in the southwest part of the image The corrected version is also shown Note that the contamination extends throughout the picture brightness temperatures are too warm even in regions away from the large contamination over the central United States for example compare the brightness temperatures of the cloud tops in the scene The contaminated 3 9 micrometer data are corrected using two sources of information For regions outside 6 degrees the known amount of additional stray light is subtracted from the signal If the sun is within 6 degrees of the pixel and the stray light signal is overwhelming signals from the longer wavelength channels are used in combination with the 3 9 micrometer signal to estimate the true 3 9 micrometer signal Linear relationships between the IR channels will vary with geographical location Other thermal channel data that contain much less stray light are used in each of 256 geographic bins as input into multiple linear regressions relating 3 9 micrometer data or 6 5 micrometer data to 10 7 and 13 3 micrometer data The hybrid image that results is uniformly cooler with a clear signal in a region formerly overwhelmed by stray light The algorithm was developed by ITT and implemented by NOAA NESDIS Current plans call for correcting the GOES 15 Imager during the fall 2012 eclipse season This ftp site contains more information The GOES Eclipse schedule is here This is the White Paper on Stray Light Finally click here for more information on GVAR Finally here is the notification from SSD that the Stray Light Correction was implemented Posted in Calibration Anomalies GOES 13 GOES 15 No Comments Plume of blowing sand from the White Sands National Monument in New Mexico February 28th 2012 GOES 15 left and GOES 13 right 0 63 µm visible channel images click image to play animation Strong winds of 50 60 mph with a peak gust of 74 mph at Fort Stanton New Mexico

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/date/2012/02 (2012-11-14)
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  • January « 2012 « CIMSS Satellite Blog
    resolution Suomi NPP VIIRS 3 74 µm data below The darker black pixel that is circled exhibited an IR brightness temperature of 24 7 C Suomi NPP VIIRS 3 74 µm shortwave IR image Posted in AVHRR Fire detection POES Suomi NPP VIIRS No Comments Record cold continues across interior Alaska January 29th 2012 POES AVHRR 12 0 µm and MODIS 11 0 µm IR images with METAR surface reports Record cold continued across the interior of Alaska with Fairbanks reaching a minimum temperature of 50º F on 28 January 2012 and 51º F on 29 January 2012 These were the first 50º F temperatures at Fairbanks since 2006 NWS Fairbanks public information statements The coldest temperature reported was 65º F at Galena and by a coopertive observer at Fort Yukon Fairbanks region temperature and precipitation data A sequence of AWIPS images of 1 km resolution POES AVHRR 12 0 µm IR and MODIS 11 0 µm IR data above revealed the expansion of surface IR brightness temperatures of 50º C or colder violet to white color enhancement during the early morning hours on 28 and 29 January The coldest surface air temperatures at the times of the IR images included 50º F at Fairbanks station identifier PAFA and 60º F at Fort Yukon station identifier PFYU and Tanana station identifier PATA The signature of cold air drainage into lower elevation terrain such as the relatively narrow river valleys along the south side of the Brooks Range and also the broad Yukon Flats could be seen on the 1 km resolution IR images Suomi NPP VIIRS 11 450 µm Band I5 IR image The pattern of cold air drainage into lower elevations could be seen in even greater detail using McIDAS images of 375 meter resolution Suomi NPP VIIRS 10 450 µm IR data at 12 06 UTC on 28 January over northwestern Alaska and the Yukon Territory of Canada above and also just to the southwest over the eastern interior of Alaska below These 2 VIIRS images use a different color enhancement where the coldest surface IR brightness temperatures are darker blue Unfortunately there was no surface air temperature report for Arctic Village station identifier PARC at this time but the coldest surface IR brightness temperatures within some of the deeper valleys near that site was 58 4º C 73 1º F To the south a broad area of very cold dark blue surface IR brightness temperatures was seen across the Yukon Flats with a minimum value of 58 3º C 72 9º F The hourly surface air temperature at the Fort Yukon PFYU reporting station close to the time of the satellite image was 56º F while the surface IR brightness temperature at that location was 54º F Although there is not always a direct 1 1 correspondence between satellite sensed IR surface temperature values and the actual air temperature measured within an instrument shelter at a height of 5 feet above ground level the IR satellite imagery

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/date/2012/01 (2012-11-14)
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  • December « 2011 « CIMSS Satellite Blog
    Meteosat MTSAT Satellite winds Tropical cyclones 1 Comment Mountain waves and banner clouds over Wyoming and Montana December 26th 2011 GOES 15 GOES West and GOES 13 GOES East 6 5 µm water vapor channel images click image to play animation Strong winds aloft associated with a cyclonically curved jet streak over the Northern Rocky Mountains were responsible for a number of mountain waves and lee banner clouds over parts of Wyoming and Montana on 25 December 26 December 2011 A side by side comparison of GOES 15 GOES West and GOES 13 GOES East 6 5 µm water vapor channel images above click image to play animation revealed some interesting differences in the appearance of these mountain waves Note that the images are displayed in the native projection of their respective satellites A comparison of the GOES 15 and GOES 13 imager 6 5 µm water vapor channel weighting functions below showed that the satellite viewing angles or satellite zenith angles were very close 56 41 degrees for GOES 15 and 59 95 degrees for GOES 13 and the weighting function profiles were nearly identical However the fact that GOES 15 was viewing the region from the west allowed it to better resolve the warm dry signatures yellow color enhancement of the most pronounced sinking regions associated with some of the stronger mountain waves These warm dry subsidence signatures were possibly masked by the high altitude lee banner clouds when viewed from the east with GOES 13 GOES 15 vs GOES 13 water vapor channel weighting function profiles At 00 40 UTC there was one pilot report of brief moderate turbulence at an altitude of 37 000 feet near the Wind River Range in west central Wyoming below Only a lee banner cloud was evident on the GOES water vapor imagery at that particular time but a few hours later the warm dry signature of strong mountain wave subsidence started to become more distinct over that location GOES 13 6 5 µm water vapor channel image pilot report of turbulence Had higher spatial resolution water vapor imagery been available closer to the 00 40 UTC time of the turbulence encounter perhaps a more distinct mountain wave signature might have been apparent For example a comparison of 1 km resolution MODIS 6 7 µm and 4 km resolution GOES 13 6 5 µm water vapor images at 05 01 UTC below demonstrated the advantage of improved spatial resolution water vapor imagery for identifying subtle mountain wave signatures across the region MODIS 6 7 µm and GOES 13 6 5 µm water vapor channel images Posted in Aviation GOES 13 GOES 15 MODIS No Comments Older Entries Webmaster Follow us on Search for Pages About this site CIMSS Satellite Proving Ground Contact us Mobile users POES AVHRR in AWIPS SatePedia Suomi NPP JPSS Proving Ground VISIT SHyMet Training Topics December 2011 M T W T F S S Nov Jan 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/date/2011/12 (2012-11-14)
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