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  • March « 2011 « CIMSS Satellite Blog
    Land Surface Temperature product 29 March Posted in MODIS Red Green Blue RGB images Winter weather No Comments Mid tropospheric gravity waves upwind of intense convection March 30th 2011 GOES 13 6 5 µm water vapor images click image to play animation McIDAS images of 4 km resolution GOES 13 6 5 µm water vapor channel data above click image to play animation showed a well defined warm dry arc feature denoted by the brighter yellow color enhancement just upwind of a large Mesoscale Convective System MCS that was moving eastward along the northern Gulf of Mexico and the adjacent Gulf Coast states on 30 March 2011 The MCS eventually produced a number of reports of damaging winds large hail and tornadoes across northern Florida Also note that a subtle signature of what appeared to be gravity waves could be seen within portions of this warm dry arc feature especially in the southern portion over the Gulf of Mexico AWIPS images of 1 km resolution MODIS 6 7 µm water vapor channel data below offered a more detailed view of the packet of gravity waves that was associated with the southern portion of the dry arc feature This warm dry arc seen on the water vapor imagery could have been a signature of a region of strong compensating subsidence along the rear edge of the intense deep convection MODIS 6 7 µm water vapor images A number of pilot reports of moderate turbulence were co located within this warm dry arc feature seen on the water vapor imagery below click image to play animation especially around 14 UTC 16 UTC and 17 UTC There was also a report of severe turbulence along the northern portion of the arc feature as it moved over far southern Alabama at 17 35 UTC This supports the idea that the warm dry arc was likely a signature of strong subsidence in the wake of the MCS GOES 13 6 5 µm water vapor images pilot reports of turbulence click to play animation Note that a small patch of clouds developed along the southern portion of the warm dry arc which contained the gravity waves over the Gulf of Mexico after about 18 UTC additional information about this cloud patch could offer some clues as to the approximate altitude of the gravity waves The POES AVHRR Cloud Type product below indicated that the cloud patch associated with the gravity wave was a cirrus feature orange color enhancement POES AVHRR Cloud Type product The corresponding POES AVHRR Cloud Top Height product below suggested that the tops of that cloud patch were generally in the 12 13 km range darker green color enhancement POES AVHRR cloud top temperatures were in the 55 to 65º C range with this feature POES AVHRR Cloud Top Height product All of the above satellite evidence suggests that the gravity waves seen on the water vapor imagery were not surface based but were located at a higher altitude within the middle troposphere

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/date/2011/03 (2012-11-14)
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  • February « 2011 « CIMSS Satellite Blog
    3 7 µm shortwave IR data below again demonstrated the improved fire hot spot red to yellow color enhancement detection capability provided by higher spatial resolution MODIS 3 7 µm GOES 13 3 9 µm shortwave IR images A similar AWIPS comparison of the MODIS 0 65 µm visible channel and the corresponding MODIS 1 38 µm cirrus detection channel image below again showed the utility of the near IR cirrus detection channel for highlighting the areal coverage of the blowing dust At the time of the MODIS image winds across this region were gusting as high as 60 knots at Amarillo station identifier KAMA where surface visibility was restricted to 1 5 miles MODIS 0 65 µm visible image MODIS 1 38 µm cirrus detection image Posted in Air quality AVHRR Fire detection GOES 13 Google Earth MODIS POES No Comments High winds and wildfire activity over the Mid Atlantic region February 19th 2011 GOES 13 6 5 µm water vapor channel imagery click image to play animation AWIPS images of 4 km resolution GOES 13 6 5 µm water vapor channel data above click image to play animation revealed an extensive mountain wave signature across much of the Mid Atlantic region of the US on 19 February 2011 Strong winds gusting to 71 mph in Virginia and 63 mph in Maryland and Pennsylvania in the wake of a cold frontal passage were interacting with the terrain of the Appalachian Mountains to create the widespread mountain waves and some of the mountain waves were responsible for pilot reports of moderate to severe turbulence 1 km resolution MODIS 6 7 µm water vapor images below offered a more detailed view of the mountain wave structure MODIS 6 7 µm water vapor images On occasion these mountain waves appear in clear air with no clouds present this can be seen from Virginia to the Delmarva Peninsula in a comparison of a MODIS 0 65 µm visible image with the corresponding MODIS 6 5 µm water vapor image below Aircraft sometimes encounter clear air turbulence under such circumstances MODIS 0 65 µm visible image MODIS 6 5 µm water vapor image It is interesting to note that the MODIS 2 1 µm near IR snow ice channel image below displayed a signature of what appeared to be the effect of atmospheric gravity waves over the adjacent offshore waters A similar signature was discussed on the MODIS Image of the Day site off the coast of New Zealand on 21 December 2010 MODIS near IR 2 1 µm snow ice channel image The combination of strong winds and dry vegetation MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index created an environment favorable for wildfire activity and on this day there were more than 100 wildfires reported across the state of Virginia alone The hot spots signatures black to yellow to red color enhancement from many of the larger fires could be seen on 4 km resolution GOES 13 3 9 µm imagery with many more of

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/date/2011/02 (2012-11-14)
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  • January « 2011 « CIMSS Satellite Blog
    ahead of the leading edge of the dry slot that was seen on water vapor imagery Thundersnow was reported across a wide portion of the Mid Atlantic and Northeast states with snowfall rates as high as 1 4 inches per hour at some locations MODIS 11 0 µm IR image lightning strikes METAR surface reports 27 JANUARY UPDATE MIMIC Total Precipitable Water product click image to play animation This storm was not particularly intense in terms of a low central pressure or strong winds but it was able to tap a significant plume of deep moisture in excess of 30 40 mm or 1 2 1 6 inches from the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean as can be seen on AWIPS images of the MIMIC Total Precipitable Water TPW product above click image to play animation and the Blended Total Precipitable Water product below click image to play animation This contributed to the high snowfall totals at many location s Weather Underground blog WeatherMatrix blog Blended Total Precipitable Water product click image to play animation Parts of this plume of moisture represented TPW values in excess of 200 of normal below click image to play animation Percent of Normal TPW product click image to play animation Posted in AVHRR Aviation GOES 13 Lightning MODIS POES Red Green Blue RGB images No Comments The warming effects of the Arctic Ocean January 25th 2011 POES AVHRR 12 0 µm IR images The North Slope region of far northern Alaska had been abnormally cold for a number of days in late January 2011 for example Barrow had minimum temperatures of 43ºF 42ºC and 45ºF 43ºC on 23 January and 24 January respectively the normal low temperature on those days is 20ºF 29ºC While the sun actually rose at Barrow on 23 January for the first time in 2011 from 1 05 pm to 2 14 pm local time it had little effect on warming the temperatures there which were around 40ºF 40ºC at the time However a sequence of AWIPS images of POES AVHRR 12 0 µm IR data above revealed something that did appear to have a pronounced effect on the warming of surface air temperatures at Barrow a shift of winds from southerly offshore from the cold interior on 24 January 2011 to northeasterly onshore from off the Arctic Ocean on 25 January 2011 Around the same time as the northeasterly wind shift a number of long narrow features resembling large cracks in the sea ice began to exhibit significantly warmer IR brightness temperatures 20º to 30ºC yellow to orange color enhancement just offshore of Barrow Apparently a great deal of heat was able to bleed upward through these thinner areas of sea ice which was then transported toward the coast of Alaska by northeasterly winds Although the temperature at Barrow station identifier PABR rose to 24ºF 31ºC by 15 09 UTC on 25 January farther to the southeast the temperature at Nuiqsut station identifier PAQT remained at a very

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/date/2011/01 (2012-11-14)
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  • December « 2010 « CIMSS Satellite Blog
    GOES 13 0 63 µm visible images showed that the presence of extensive low level cloudiness prevented a well defined eye structure from being seen below GOES 13 3 9 µm shortwave IR and 0 63 µm visible images click to play Once the bulk of the cloudiness had cleared in the wake of the storm by the afternoon on 27 December a comparison of a 1 km resolution MODIS 0 65 µm visible channel image with the corresponding MODIS false color Red Green Blue RGB image created using the 0 65 µm visible channel as the Red and the 2 1 µm snow ice channel as the Blue and Green components of the image revealed that a rather large snow hole remained from central Pennsylvania to northern Virginia below Inland snow cover appeared as darker shades of red on the RGB image in contrast to bare ground cyan and supercooled water droplet clouds lighter shades of white MODIS 0 65 µm visible MODIS false color Red Green Blue RGB image Posted in AVHRR GOES 13 MODIS POES Red Green Blue RGB images Winter weather No Comments Oil pipeline fire in Mexico December 19th 2010 GOES 13 0 63 µm visible images We received the following in an email from Mike Sporer NOAA NESDIS I saw this in a Goes 13 visible loop There appears to be a dark cloud originating near the volcano Popocatepetl But I have never seen a volcanic plume appear dark in a visible image before The dark cloud also appears in IR4 at a temperature similar to nearby mid clouds but IR2 shows no hot spot signature of volcanic activity Could it be that Popocatepetl burped a huge cloud of gas that is absorbing in the visible spectrum Taking a closer look using McIDAS images of GOES 13 0 63 µm visible channel data above a large dark plume feature can be seen moving southward and then southwestward just to the east and south of the summit of the Popocatepetl volcano denoted by the red V on the images on 19 December 2010 It is interesting to note that part of the northern trailing edge of the dark plume appeared to slow down and then separate from the main body of the plume around 17 UTC the turning of the surface winds from northerly to southerly at Puebla the observing station just to the east may have had something to do with this plume behavior MODIS Red Green Blue RGB image created using channels 01 04 03 MODIS Red Green Blue RGB image created using channels 07 02 01 The plume feature also appeared very dark on MODIS Red Green Blue RGB images at 17 35 UTC above and on AWIPS images of POES AVHRR data at 19 45 UTC below the plume exhibited IR brightness temperatures around 12 15º C which corresponded to altitudes between 9307 10 656 feet or 2838 3249 meters on the Mexico City MMMX rawinsonde plot POES AVHRR 0 86

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/date/2010/12 (2012-11-14)
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  • November « 2010 « CIMSS Satellite Blog
    visible channel data and MODIS 11 0 µm IR channel data below showed that many of the larger plumes exhibited a slightly cooler lighter gray appearance on the IR image MODIS 0 65 µm visible image MODIS 11 0 µm IR image Posted in Air quality GOES 13 MODIS No Comments Swaths of snow and ice across parts of Missouri Illinois Indiana and Kentucky November 26th 2010 GOES 13 0 63 µm visible channel images McIDAS images of GOES 13 0 63 µm visible channel data above showed the presence of long narrow swaths of brighter white snow cover oriented from southwest to northeast across parts of Missouri and Illinois as well as a broader swath of more significant snow cover across Kentucky on the morning of 26 November 2010 Reports of snowfall within the narrow swaths which occurred on the previous day across Missouri and Illinois were generally 1 inch or less with the highest amount being 2 0 inches at Seymour Missouri NOHRSC snowfall totals The light snow cover was seen to melt rather quickly during the morning hours under full sunshine However in addition to the light snowfall a number of locations also reported freezing rain with ice accumulations of about 1 8 inch A comparison of AWIPS images of 1 km resolution MODIS 0 65 µm visible channel data with a MODIS false color Red Green Blue RGB image below created using MODIS 0 65 µm data as the Red compoent and MODIS 2 1 µm snow ice channel data as the Green and Blue components helped to highlight the areas where there was also some light ice accrual which being generally transparent would not show up on the visible channel image Since both snow and ice are very strong absorbers of energy at the 2 1 µm wavelength the swaths of snow and or ice on the ground showed up as the darker red colored features on the RGB image the darker the red color the thicker the layer of snow ice on the ground Cloud features that were composed of large amounts of ice crystals also exhibited a lighter red appearance on the RGB image MODIS 0 65 µm visible image MODIS false color Red Green Blue RGB image An image of the MODIS Land Surface Temperature LST product below showed that the swath of snow cover across southern Missouri was keeping LST values down into the 30s F darker blue color enhancement compared to LST values in the 40s in the bare ground areas adjacent to the snow cover MODIS Land Surface Temperature product Posted in GOES 13 MODIS Red Green Blue RGB images Winter weather No Comments Older Entries Webmaster Follow us on Search for Pages About this site CIMSS Satellite Proving Ground Contact us Mobile users POES AVHRR in AWIPS SatePedia Suomi NPP JPSS Proving Ground VISIT SHyMet Training Topics November 2010 M T W T F S S Oct Dec 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/date/2010/11 (2012-11-14)
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  • October « 2010 « CIMSS Satellite Blog
    these waves were in cloud free air according to the visible channel image Such mountain wave signatures on water vapor imagery can indicate regions where clear air turbulence might be likely MODIS 0 65 µm visible channel image MODIS 0 67 µm water vapor image CIMSS has been making MODIS imagery and products available in AWIPS format to National Weather Service forecast offices as a part of the GOES R Proving Ground project Posted in General interpretation GOES R MODIS Red Green Blue RGB images No Comments Powerful Great Lakes Cyclone October 26th 2010 GOES 13 6 5 µm water vapor imagery surface analyses storm reports An unusually large and strong mid latitude cyclone rapidly intensified over the western Great Lakes region on 26 October 2010 see HPC 18 UTC surface analysis and 22 UTC SPC Watches Warnings and Advisories AWIPS images of GOES 13 6 5 µm water vapor channel data with overlays of surface analyses and SPC storm reports above showed a well defined dry slot yellow color enhancement wrapping into the southern and eastern quadrants of the storm Very strong surface wind gusts NWS Milwaukee NWS Green Bay HPC associated with this cyclone were reported in Wisconsin 79 mph at Sherwood the Upper Peninsula of Michigan 70 mph at Point Aux Barques South Dakota 70 mph at Union Center and Minnesota 65 mph at Mehurin AWIPS Northern Hemisphere composite water vapor images covering the period 23 27 October 2010 below also available as a QuickTime movie revealed the large amount of jet stream energy that was approaching the Lower 48 states from the central and eastern Pacific Ocean during the days leading up to the development of the strong Great Lakes cyclone Northern Hemisphere composite water vapor images 23 27 October 2010 One notable aspect of this storm is that it set new all time lowest barometric pressure readings for the states of Wisconsin and Minnesota which were the equivalent to those that would be seen in a Category 3 hurricane PUBLIC INFORMATION STATEMENT NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE DULUTH MN 1227 PM CDT WED OCT 27 2010 LOW PRESSURE RECORDS BROKEN ON OCTOBER 26 2010 THIS IS A PRELIMINARY STATEMENT ON THESE PRESSURE RECORDS HERE IS WHAT WE KNOW SO FAR ABOUT THE LOW PRESSURE RECORDS SET ON OCTOBER 26TH A FEW OF THE RECORDS HAVE BEEN RECALCULATED TO ADJUST FOR TRUE MEAN SEA LEVEL PRESSURE SOME OF THE PREVIOUS VALUES WERE CALCULATED USING A STANDARD ATMOSPHERE ASSUMPTION THE ALTIMETER SETTING AT THE STATION THE VALUES IN MILLIBARS ARE THE ONES THAT WILL BE MORE EXACT AN UNUSUALLY INTENSE LOW AFFECTED THE STATE OF MINNESOTA AT 513 PM CDT THE AUTOMATED WEATHER OBSERVING SYSTEM AT BIGFORK MINNESOTA RECORDED A 955 2 MILLIBAR 28 21 INCHES PRESSURE THIS BREAKS THE ALL TIME MINNESOTA STATE RECORD FOR THE LOWEST OBSERVED PRESSURE THE PREVIOUS RECORD WAS 962 7 MB SET ON NOVEMBER 10 1998 AT ALBERT LEA AND AUSTIN IN SOUTHERN MINNESOTA THE RECORD WAS INITIALLY BROKEN SHORTLY AFTER 10 AM

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/date/2010/10 (2012-11-14)
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  • September « 2010 « CIMSS Satellite Blog
    the larger rivers primarily the Mississippi River and the Wisconsin River before 13 September 2010 and after 29 September 2010 parts of the Upper Midwest region received very heavy rainfall Two locations in Wisconsin are highlighted where there were evacuations ordered due to flooding Arcadia on 23 September and Portage on 27 September These false color Red Green Blue images are created using MODIS bands 7 2 1 water shows as the very dark features allowing the changes in river boundaries as well as areas that have experienced significant water inundation to be easily seen Posted in Heavy rain flooding Hydrology MODIS Red Green Blue RGB images No Comments Fog and stratus over the Upper Midwest region September 27th 2010 GOES 13 night time fog stratus product daytime visible imagery AWIPS images of the night time 4 km resolution GOES 13 fog stratus product and the daytime 1 km resolution GOES 13 visible images above showed two features of interest on 27 September 2010 1 narrow fingers of river valley fog forming during the overnight hours and then burning off during the early morning hours over parts of the Mississippi River valley and the Wisconsin River valley and 2 a larger patch of stratus cloud that lingered over southern Lake Michigan and the Chicago region Note the improvement in the detection of the actual structure of the river valley fog features with the change from the 4 km resolution fog stratus product images to the 1 km resolution visible images the importance of spatial resolution for detecting river valley fog is also obvious on a comparison of the 1 km resolution MODIS fog stratus product image with the corresponding GOES 13 fog stratus product image below 1 km resolution MODIS vs 4 km resolution GOES 13 fog stratus product images POES AVHRR Cloud Top Height product Other satellite products that could be utilized to further characterize the large patch of stratus cloud over southern Lake Michigan and the Chicago region are the 1 km resolution POES AVHRR Cloud Top Height CTH product above which showed CTH values of around 3 km and the 1 km resolution POES AVHRR Cloud Top Temperature CTT product below which depicted CTT values of 0º C to 2º C across much of the feature POES AVHRR Cloud Top Temperature product Posted in AVHRR Fog detection GOES 13 MODIS POES No Comments Older Entries Webmaster Follow us on Search for Pages About this site CIMSS Satellite Proving Ground Contact us Mobile users POES AVHRR in AWIPS SatePedia Suomi NPP JPSS Proving Ground VISIT SHyMet Training Topics September 2010 M T W T F S S Aug Oct 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Categories Air quality Antarctic Arctic AVHRR Aviation AWIPS II Calibration Anomalies Cloud Top Cooling Convective Initiation Fire detection Fog detection General interpretation GOES sounder GOES 10 GOES 11 GOES

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/date/2010/09 (2012-11-14)
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  • August « 2010 « CIMSS Satellite Blog
    category 3 storm that is moving over warm water in an environment of low shear Strengthening is forecast Interests along the east coast of the United States and Canada should monitor the evolution of this system The infrared imagery shows cold cloud tops surrounding much but not all of the developing eye Coldest cloud top brightness temperatures the light purples within the greys are values around 80 C In the loop above GOES 13 and GOES 15 imagery are combined to give a stereoscopic view of the storm allowing a three dimensional perspective GOES 13 0 63 µm visible images A closer view of the eye of Hurricane Earl is shown using GOES 13 0 63 µm visible images above also available as a QuickTime movie the satellite was in Rapid Scan Operations RSO providing images as frequently as every 5 10 minutes Near the end of the time of the visible image animation a comparison of 1 km resolution NOAA 15 AVHRR and 4 km resolution GOES 13 IR images below revealed that the coldest cloud top IR brightness temperatures were located in the northeastern quadrant of the eyewall region as cold as 86º C on the NOAA 15 image and 80º C on the GOES 13 image By this time Hurricane Earl had reached Category 4 intensity on the Saffir Simpson Hurricane Scale NOAA 15 10 8 µm IR and GOES 13 10 7 µm IR images Posted in AVHRR General interpretation GOES 13 GOES 15 POES Tropical cyclones No Comments Locating river valley fog features the importance of spatial resolution August 30th 2010 1 km resolution MODIS 4 km resolution GOES 13 fog stratus product images During the pre dawn hours of 30 August 2010 AWIPS images of the 1 km resolution MODIS and the 4 km resolution GOES 13 fog stratus product at around 07 UTC above demonstrated the importance of spatial resolution in displaying the location of narrow fingers of river valley fog features across parts of the northeastern US About 2 5 hours later a similar comparison between the 1 km resolution AVHRR and the 4 km resolution GOES 13 fog stratus products below showed that the GOES 13 image was overwhelmed with a widespread false fog stratus signal problem which made the AVHRR image all the more valuable at that particular time 1 km resolution AVHRR 4 km resolution GOES 13 fog stratus product images Posted in AVHRR Fog detection GOES 13 MODIS POES No Comments Older Entries Webmaster Follow us on Search for Pages About this site CIMSS Satellite Proving Ground Contact us Mobile users POES AVHRR in AWIPS SatePedia Suomi NPP JPSS Proving Ground VISIT SHyMet Training Topics August 2010 M T W T F S S Jul Sep 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Categories Air quality Antarctic Arctic AVHRR Aviation AWIPS II Calibration Anomalies

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/date/2010/08 (2012-11-14)
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