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  • November « 2009 « CIMSS Satellite Blog
    from the lake is saturating the instrument on GOES East GOES 10 farther east can look at the same region and not see the Sun Glint In contrast to GOES East and GOES West data data from GOES 10 have been remapped before distribution since it arrived at 60 West back in late 2006 The remapping is necessary because the satellite inclination was large indeed it was more than 4 degrees on 25 November 2009 Update The Final Imager images from GOES 10 0 65 microns 3 9 microns 6 8 microns 10 7 microns 12 0 microns Infrared Channels in a loop Current plans are for GOES 13 to replace GOES 12 as GOES East in April of 2010 Subsequently GOES 12 will move to 60 W and resume GOES 10 s duties Posted in General interpretation GOES 10 Comments Off Standing waves to the lee of the Sierra Nevada November 29th 2009 GOES 11 6 7 µm water vapor images Under normal conditions of westerly flow aloft one might expect to see occasional standing waves to the east of the Sierra Nevada mountain range however due to the presence of a strong cut off low over the southwestern US the winds aloft over Nevada and California were from the northeast on 29 November 2009 and AWIPS images of the 8 km resolution GOES 11 6 7 µm water vapor channel above showed a signature of mountain waves to the west of the crest of the Sierra Nevada This type of lee wave signature on water vapor imagery indicates the potential for clear air turbulence in the proximity of the waves however there were no pilot reports of turbulence noted in the immediate area of the lee wave signature possibly due to the time of day when air traffic is generally at a minimum A pair of 1 km resolution MODIS 6 7 µm water vapor images at 06 20 and 10 38 UTC below showed the advantage of higher spatial resolution for detecting such mesoscale signatures MODIS 6 7 µm water vapor images A comparison of the 8 km resolution GOES 11 6 7 µm water vapor 4 km resolution GOES 14 6 5 µm water vapor and 4 km resolution GOES 12 6 5 µm water vapor images below further demonstrated the effects of varying spatial resolution as well as varying satellite viewing angle in resolving the lee wave signatures to the west of the Sierra Nevada GOES 14 positioned at 105º West longitude had the best viewing angle of the region and its 4 km resolution water vapor channel did a better job of depicting both the areal coverage and the temporal duration of the lee wave structure especially compared to GOES 11 positioned at 135º West longitude with its 8 km resolution water vapor channel Using GOES 14 imagery the onset of the lee wave structure was easier to see and the duration of the lee wave event was also longer In addition even though

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/date/2009/11 (2012-11-14)
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  • October « 2009 « CIMSS Satellite Blog
    the Gulf of Tehuantepec a loop of 3 hourly water vapor imagery here and a loop of 6 hourly 11 micron imagery here show an interesting flare up of convection in the Gulf of Tehuantepec in the days before Rick formed It is worth pondering how that convection influenced Rick s early and rapid growth The evolution from strong tropical depression here at 2100 UTC on 15 October to minimal hurricane here at 1500 UTC on 16 October to category 4 hurricane here at 1500 UTC on 17 October to category 5 hurricane above was rapid indeed and speaks to the ideal environment through which the disturbance traveled Consider the image below from the CIMSS Tropical Weather Website The image shows that the theoretical minimum to the central pressure in the region through which the system traveled was below 880 mb This value is a function of sea surface temperature and of atmospheric thermodynamic profiles as described here Note that Rick was moving across ocean waters with surface temperatures close to 30 C as it intensified rapidly Wind shear as the storm rapidly intensified time was also very low as diagnosed by Satellite winds Very warm ocean waters and low vertical wind shear are key ingredients in allowing the strengthening of tropical systems The ideal environment resulted in a category 5 storm with a very tall circular ring of convection around the eye The GOES 11 10 7 micron image below shows temperatures of nearly 80 C the purple pixels within the grey in the tallest convection around the eye Added Note in the water vapor and infrared imagery loops above the presence of what looks to be a binocular shaped eye This is an artifact of the interpolation used to blend GOES 12 and GOES 11 imagery to combine one cohesive picture In individual images from either satellite only a single eye is present Polar orbiting satellites such as NOAA 19 give high resolution images of the storm The 10 8 micron example above from 2020 UTC on 17 October as the storm neared its peak intensity shows pixels northwest of the storm center this NOAA 19 pass is ascending so north is towards the bottom of the image with brightness temperatures of 84 C Note also the more circular aspect ratio that comes from the polar orbiter s more top down view versus the Geostationary satellite s oblique view Visible imagery below at 0 65 and 0 86 microns from the NOAA 19 AVHRR instrument show better storm structure as well MODIS imagery from the Terra and Aqua satellites can also be used to investigate the storm Unfortunately for this storm the Aqua overpass granule split was right across the storm eye granules are created so that the vast amount of data created by the satellite are more easily transportable Gluing the two images together does not re capture all the missed points but it does give a good representation of the storm intensity here A later MODIS

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/date/2009/10 (2012-11-14)
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  • September « 2009 « CIMSS Satellite Blog
    Pacific Northwest states high temperatures at many locations in Oregon were in the 90s and low 100s F for two consecutive days The effect of this large ridge could be seen quite well on an AWIPS composite image of the GOES 11 and GOES 12 water vapor channels above Stu Ostro at The Weather Channel pointed out that the 5950 meter geopotential height at Spokane Washington at 00 UTC on 23 September is the record highest value for so far north in the US so late in the season since the beginning of the NCEP reanalysis dataset which goes back though 1948 A pair of large wildfires were burning in southwestern Oregon the hot spots from these 2 fires could be seen on MODIS 3 7 µm and GOES 11 3 9 µm shortwave IR images below located to the east of Roseburg station identifier KRBG The location and areal coverage of these wildfire hot spots was better depicted on the 1 km resolution MODIS image compared to the 4 km resolution GOES 11 image in addition the leading edge of the marine fog stratus that was moving inland was more accurately shown on the higher resolution MODIS imagery MODIS 3 7 µm GOES 11 3 9 µm shortwave IR images 250 meter resolution MODIS true color and false color images from the SSEC MODIS Today site below show even better details of the smoke plumes and the marine fog stratus There was also evidence of some smoke remaining in a few of the valleys near the fire activity The MODIS false color image also displays the larger active fire hot spots as pink colored features at the source of the smoke plumes MODIS true color and false color images GOES 12 GOES East visible images The large plumes of smoke from these Oregon fires could be seen moving northward across western Oregon and western Washington even drifting as far to the north as southern British Columbia and Alberta in Canada Note that the leading northern edge of the smoke plume was easier to identify on GOES 12 GOES East visible imagery above compared to GOES 11 GOES West visible imagery below this is a result of the more favorable forward scattering geometry with the GOES 12 satellite However the more direct viewing angle of GOES 11 made it easier to see the marine fog stratus that was moving inland along coastal sections of Washington Oregon and California GOES 11 GOES West visible images Posted in Fire detection GOES 11 GOES 12 MODIS Comments Off Dust storm over eastern Australia September 23rd 2009 MTSAT 1R visible images One of the worst dust storms in the past 70 years swept across a large part of eastern Australia on 22 September 23 September 2009 Daily Mail Online photos A sequence of MTSAT 1R visible images above showed the progression of the large dust cloud as it moved eastward during the daylight hours Note the appearance of lee waves along the top of

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/date/2009/09 (2012-11-14)
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  • August « 2009 « CIMSS Satellite Blog
    the hottest fire pixels located at that time A comparison of the MODIS visible 3 7 µm shortwave IR and 2 1 µm near IR snow ice channels below demonstrated that the near IR snow ice channel imagery could be used in such a case to pinpoint the location of the hottest fires which show up as the brightest white pixels on the snow ice channel image MODIS visible 3 7 µm shortwave IR and 2 1 µm near IR snow ice channel images 250 meter resolution MODIS true color and false color images from the SSEC MODIS Today site below show the size of the Station Fire burn scar the large red colored patch located to the west of the smoke feature in addition to the brighter pink active fire hot spots on the southeastern periphery of the burn area 250 meter resolution MODIS true color and false color images Other AWIPS examples of MODIS imagery of the Station Fire can be found on the SPoRT blog from 01 September and from 03 September Posted in Air quality Fire detection GOES 11 GOES 12 Google Earth MODIS Comments Off Danny and Wind Shear August 28th 2009 Vertical wind shear is the change of wind speed and or direction with height For tropical cyclones wind shear is something that must be overcome if strengthening is to occur For minimal tropical storm Danny strong wind shear has persisted in keeping convection far from the storm center When the storm center is exposed as in the visible loop above from 28 August the atmospheric changes that occur within the convection cannot serve to strengthen the storm center Wind shear can be diagnosed using satellite cloud information It is plainly evident in the satellite loop note how the upper level clouds are moving from the southwest especially over the western half of the satellite loop whereas the lower level clouds are circulating around the storm center A diagnosis of shear from the CIMSS Tropical Weather Website shows very large shear values 40 associated with a mid tropospheric short wave just starting to move off the southeast coast of the United States Values are somewhat less over Danny and large again off to the east of Danny As the short wave approaches Danny shear values over Danny will increase and chances for intensification will drop Other factors continue to support intensification however such as warm sea surface temperatures The analysis shows ocean water temperatures in the low to mid 80s in the vicinity of Danny Two other features are evident in the sea surface temperature plot The Gulf Stream shows plainly as a ribbon of warm water extending eastward from Cape Hatteras In addition there is a striking path of cooler temperatures off to Danny s north and east this is a result of the mixing and upwelling associated with the passage of Hurricane Bill last week The energy that was lost from the warm ocean waters helped to sustain Bill s strong winds

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/date/2009/08 (2012-11-14)
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  • July « 2009 « CIMSS Satellite Blog
    Florida A view centered over Lake Erie below showed widespread cumulus cloud development surrounding the lake with some bands of billow clouds evident in the eastern portion of the scene There was also a hint of a sediment plume south of Long Point which extends into the northeastern portion of the lake from Ontario this sediment plume could also be seen on MODIS true color imagery GOES 14 visible image centered over Lake Erie Looking to the south of the Equator a view centered over central Chile in South America below showed a small cyclonic clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere vortex in the marine layer clouds off the coast with snow cover inland over the higher terrain of the Andes GOES 14 visible image centered over central Chile Over the South Pacific Ocean some interesting cloud structure suggesting the formation of actinae was apparent below GOES 14 visible image actinae over the South Pacific Ocean An image centered over the Amazon River in central Brazil below showed how the wide waterway was suppressing the formation of cumulus clouds since the water surfaces were not heating up as quickly as the adjacent land surfaces The Amazon River was still abnormally wide after record rainfall across parts of Brazil during May June 2009 in fact at the mouth of the Amazon River a large sediment plume was seen fanning outward into the Atlantic Ocean on MODIS true color imagery GOES 14 visible image centered over the Amazon River in Brazil Posted in General interpretation GOES 14 Comments Off River valley fog in southwestern Wisconsin July 23rd 2009 1 km MODIS fog stratus product 4 km GOES 12 fog stratus product A comparison of the 1 km resolution MODIS fog stratus product with the corresponding 4 km resolution GOES 12 fog stratus product above shows the importance of improved spatial resolution for the detection of areas of river valley fog yellow to orange features that were beginning to form across parts of southwestern Wisconsin and adjacent portions of southeastern Minnesota and northeastern Iowa at 08 15 UTC 3 15 am local time on 23 July 2009 The features that were enhanced with the darker orange to red colors were patches of deeper stratus clouds About 2 hours and 45 minutes later a similar comparison of the 1 km resolution NOAA 15 AVHRR fog stratus product with the 4 km resolution GOES 12 fog stratus product below indicated that some areas of fog had continued to increase in coverage during that time interval especially in parts of the east west oriented Wisconsin River valley and the north south oriented Mississippi River valley 1 km NOAA 15 fog stratus product 4 km GOES 12 fog stratus product An AWIPS image of the high resolution topography below shows which river valleys were experiencing fog formation as seen on the MODIS fog stratus product image MODIS fog stratus product topography After sunrise GOES 12 visible images below revealed that the areas of fog burned off rather quickly

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/date/2009/07 (2012-11-14)
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  • June « 2009 « CIMSS Satellite Blog
    Moroni in the Comoros Islands off the east coast of Africa on 29 June 2009 Meteosat 7 11 5 µm IR images above showed that there was a strong southerly flow over the region on that day in the wake of a cold frontal passage Meteosat 7 IR cloud drift winds from the CIMSS Tropical Cyclones site below showed that winds were generally in the 20 30 knot range over the region at the time of the crash Meteosat 7 IR cloud tracked winds These wind speeds are consistent with the surface METAR reports at Moroni Hahaya International Airport FMCH 292200Z 18022G33KT 9999 FEW020 24 17 Q1018 NOSIG FMCH 292300Z 21025G35KT 9999 FEW020 25 16 Q1017 TEMPO 18015G30KT FMCH 300000Z 21025G35KT 9999 FEW020 25 17 Q1016 TEMPO 19014KT Moroni Hahaya International Airport surface meteorogram For additional information see Yemenia Flight 626 A detailed meteorological analysis by Tim Vasquez Posted in Aviation Meteosat Satellite winds Comments Off GOES O GOES 14 launched June 27th 2009 GOES 12 visible images The GOES O satellite was launched at 22 51 UTC on 27 June 2009 from Cape Canaveral Florida station identifier XMR GOES 12 visible images above showed a portion of the rocket plume on the 23 02 UTC image some ground based photos of the launch are available here This satellite will become GOES 14 after the hand off from NASA to NOAA and will then undergo a Post Launch Test PLT during the July December 2009 period the first GOES 14 visible images should be made available on 27 July with the first InfraRed images available in mid August CIMSS has calculated the weighting functions for the GOES 14 imager and sounder channels as well as the spectral response functions and Planck function constants for GOES O and CIMSS will also contribute to the NOAA Science Test portion of the PLT in November December 2009 Posted in GOES 12 GOES 14 Comments Off Older Entries Webmaster Follow us on Search for Pages About this site CIMSS Satellite Proving Ground Contact us Mobile users POES AVHRR in AWIPS SatePedia Suomi NPP JPSS Proving Ground VISIT SHyMet Training Topics June 2009 M T W T F S S May Jul 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Categories Air quality Antarctic Arctic AVHRR Aviation AWIPS II Calibration Anomalies Cloud Top Cooling Convective Initiation Fire detection Fog detection General interpretation GOES sounder GOES 10 GOES 11 GOES 12 GOES 13 GOES 14 GOES 15 GOES R Google Earth Heavy rain flooding Historical Hydrology Lightning Marine weather McIDAS V Meteosat MODIS MTSAT Other Satellites POES Red Green Blue RGB images Satellite winds Severe convection Suomi NPP Synthetic satellite imagery Training Tropical cyclones VIIRS Volcanic activity Web Map Server What the heck is this Winter weather Other blogs of interest AccuWeather Blogs CIMSS GOES Gallery CIMSS TPARC Support CIRA GOES R Proving Ground

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/date/2009/06 (2012-11-14)
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  • May « 2009 « CIMSS Satellite Blog
    the northwestern portion of the anvil edge near the Mexico border A comparison of the MODIS 0 6 µm visible channel 1 3 µm cirrus detection channel 6 7 µm water vapor channel and the 11 0 µm IR window channel below showed that the various satellite channels differed in their ability to detect the true western and northwestern extent of the cirrus anvil edge MODIS visible cirrus detection water vapor and IR window channel images Posted in GOES 12 MODIS Severe convection Comments Off A lake enhanced cold frontal segment May 19th 2009 GOES 12 10 7 µm IR images A west to east oriented stationary front was draped across the Upper Midwest and Great Lakes states on 19 May 2009 AWIPS images of the GOES 12 10 7 µm IR window channel above showed that there was a general lack of cloudiness in the vicinity of the frontal boundary which allowed the thermal contrast on either side of the front to be seen with the warmer air and darker gray land surfaces located south of the front However the IR imagery also seemed to indicate that the far eastern portion of the front was beginning to sag southward as seen by the of surge colder IR brightness temperatures lighter gray shades along the northeastern Wisconsin shoreline of Lake Michigan A closer view of the northern portion of Lake Michigan using GOES 12 visible channel images below showed that there was a patch of lake stratus propagating quickly southwestward along the western shoreline of the lake presumably along and just behind the leading edge of the advancing frontal boundary Air temperatures at buoy 45002 dropped to 39º F as northeasterly winds increased behind the front GOES 12 visible images AWIPS images of the MODIS 250 meter resolution true color image and the corresponding 1 km resolution MODIS 11 0 µm IR window image below revealed both the leading edge of the colder air the transition from warmer red and yellow colors to the colder green colors inland across the northeastern counties of Wisconsin as well as a wave undular bore signature on the waters of Lake Michigan MODIS true color image MODIS 11 0 µm IR image Consecutive image of the MODIS Land Surface Temperature LST product below also showed the southward progression of the colder air In addition note the appearance of the slightly warmer lighter green color enhancement southwest to northeast oriented tornado damage swath located farther inland this damage swath was from the 07 June 2007 tornado event MODIS Land Surface Temperature LST images Consecutive 250 meter resolution MODIS true color images below indicated that the wave undular bore signature over the waters of Lake Michigan continued to propagate southward during this time marking the leading edge of the advancing lake enhanced cold frontal segment 250 meter resolution MODIS true color images Posted in GOES 12 Marine weather MODIS Comments Off Older Entries Webmaster Follow us on Search for Pages About this site CIMSS Satellite Proving

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/date/2009/05 (2012-11-14)
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  • April « 2009 « CIMSS Satellite Blog
    coldest areas showed up as black NO DATA pixels in the LST product due to the product algorithm mistakenly identifying the sharp temperature gradients as cloud features Unfortunately there were no National Weather Service Cooperative Observer locations in the region that reported any snow depth on the morning of 28 April so the true depth of the remaining snow cover was not known however according to an email reply from meteorologist John Dee who lives on the Keweenaw Peninsula The snow that remains is from the season and is quite variable in depth with shaded areas in the higher terrain still having a foot or a bit more but unshaded areas being bare and those that catch some sun and some shade having anywhere in between zero and a foot I d say probably 2 6 still remaining if you took the bare with the other areas with varying depth and averaged things out AWIPS examples of a 250 meter resolution MODIS true color image and a 1 kilometer resolution MODIS Sea Surface Temperature SST product below showed two items of interest 1 there was a good signal of the runoff of snow melt water as it flowed northward from the Ontonagon River basin into Lake Superior note the reddish hue of the water immediately offshore due to the iron rich sediment and 2 the water temperatures in Lake Superior were still quite cold with MODIS SST values generally in the 35º to 38º F range darker blue colors MODIS true color image MODIS Sea Surface Temperature Posted in Hydrology MODIS Winter weather Comments Off Fire on the Beach April 24th 2009 Fires in coastal northeastern South Carolina news links here and here for example near Myrtle Beach have destroyed 70 houses and forced residents to evacuate A true color MODIS image that shows the distinct smoke plume is available here The fires were visible from satellite in both the visible channels as shown above and in the near infrared channels MODIS imagery in the 3 7 micron channel shows hot spots where the peat and brush fires are active The character of the radiation emitted by the fire is a function of the temperature as described by Wien s Law with higher emitting temperatures leading to shorter wavelength emissions as described graphically by this applet Note in the applet how the wavelength of the peak emitted radiation decreases as the temperature increases a fire burning with a temperature of 700 800 F will have peak emissions near 3 9 microns The near infrared channel 3 9 microns on the GOES imager is more sensitive to fire detection than the far infrared channel 10 7 microns in part because of the great increase in near infrared emission that occurs as fires develop and mature In the loop of GOES Imager information above Visible 10 7 micron and 3 9 micron respectively note the very dark warm pixels in the 3 9 micron image in the region of the fire The

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/date/2009/04 (2012-11-14)
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