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  • 19 April 1999 -- Florida Everglades Fire
    fire pixels were saturated Media reports indicated that by Tuesday night 20 April 1999 the fire had consumed 160 000 acres The 3 9 micron animation shows the rapid evolution of the fire from the late afternoon of 19 April 1999 to early morning of 20 April 1999 Fires often flare in the late afternoon There was a dramatic difference in the Florida Everglades fire size between the 2045 UTC

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/misc/990421_fire.html (2012-11-14)
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  • 15 April 1999 -- Super Rapid Scan Operations (SRSO) Over the Tropical Atlantic
    Java animation Interactive comparison of GOES 8 visible 6 7um IR and 10 7um IR A test of NOAA GOES 8 Super Rapid Scan Operations SRSO was conducted for a 3 hour period on 15 April 1999 over the tropical

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/misc/990415.html (2012-11-14)
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  • 29 March 1999 -- Stratospheric Intrusion Over Southern Wisconsin ?
    station in southern Wisconsin during the afternoon hours GOES 8 Sounder experimental total ozone products below left showed that a lobe of high total column ozone concentration greater than 400 Dobson Units moved eastward across Wisconsin during the day which could be a signature of a tropopause fold or stratospheric intrusion capable of introducing stratospheric ozone into the upper and middle troposphere NASA TOMS total ozone images below right also show this lobe of high ozone values above 400 Dobson Units over the northcentral U S on 29 March While the daily TOMS ozone product offers global coverage the hourly ozone product from the GOES Sounder makes it easier to track the movement and evolution of transient ozone features GOES 8 Sounder Total ozone product Java animation TOMS ozone image 29 March Java animation Backward trajectories indicated that the lower tropospheric air mass arriving over southern Wisconsin had followed a southeastward transport path as it subsided across the Dakotas and southern Minnesota isentropic cross sections of potential vorticity and relative humidity along this path show stratospheric values of PV within the middle troposphere as low as 400 500 hPa and very dry air 10 20 RH over Minnesota and Wisconsin at 12 00 UTC on 29 March The morning rawinsonde from Minneapolis MN shows a very low tropopause around 400 hPa or 7 km above the surface with a well mixed nearly adiabatic lapse rate between the tropopause and the surface Moderate westerly winds 35 to 55 knots and deep tropospheric subsidence in the wake of the departing upper level shortwave may have aided the downward transport of stratospheric air characteristically very dry and high in ozone concentrations into the lower troposphere and even to the surface Surface time series plots from Baraboo Wisconsin Dells KDLL and Madison KMSN show

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/misc/990329.html (2012-11-14)
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  • 09 March 1999 -- Heavy Snow Over the Mid-Atlantic Region
    structure of the cloud tops immediately behind the trailing edge of the cold cloud band This banding can be a signature of precipitation enhancement due to strong frontogenetic forcing from isentropic lift and warm air advection or also in regions where Conditional Symmetric Instability CSI is released through moist slantwise convection see RUC 2 model diagnostics from this case courtesy of Dave Schultz NOAA NSSL Feeder seeder processes may also have been at work with convective generating cells located within the elevated warm air advection zone seeding the stratiform cloud layers within the inversion layer below Of particular interest are the ripples seen in the water vapor imagery which propagated rapidly northeastward across western North Carolina into central Virgina between 12 00 and 17 00 UTC These features appeared to be pulses of rising motion within the low level jet warm conveyor belt flow regime that existed just east of the Appalachians Using the 3 water vapor channels 7 5 7 0 and 6 5 micrometers from the GOES 8 Sounder below it becomes easier to detect evidence of the northeastward transport of moisture within the warm conveyor belt flow the warmer gray to black enhanced features originating in southern Alabama and northern Georgia on the 7 5 and 7 0 micrometer Sounder channels as well as the core of the mid level dry slot the warmer gray to black enhanced band on the 6 5 micrometer Sounder channel located just north of the 40 m s 1 jet streak from southwestern Tennessee into northern Alabama northern Georgia and western North Carolina GOES 8 Sounder 7 5um IR low level water vapor Java animation GOES 8 Sounder 7 0um IR mid level water vapor Java animation GOES 8 Sounder 6 5um IR upper level water vapor Java animation A vertical

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/misc/990309.html (2012-11-14)
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  • 12 February 1999 -- Convective Roll Snow Squalls Over the Midwest
    several traffic accidents including a 70 vehicle chain reaction accident near Milwaukee WI Note the variety of orientations of the resulting snow bands on the ground SW to NE W to E and NW to SE reflecting snowfall accumulations during different flow regimes over the course of a 2 day period GOES 8 3 9 micron shortwave InfraRed IR imagery below left shows that the cloud tops over the region on 12 February were a mixture of supercooled water droplets dark gray enhancement due to solar reflection and ice crystals warmer than 10 C light gray enhancement 10 C and colder blue enhancement Strong cold air advection in the cyclonic flow regime of a passing shortwave trough 12 00 UTC 18 00 UTC 00 00 UTC helped to destabilize the lower troposphere to the point that horizontal convective rolls streets of shallow convection aligned with the low level winds developed within the lowest 2 kilometers The Davenport Iowa rawinsonde reports below right show that the unstable mixed layer became deeper during the day but was confined to the 800 900 millibar level 1 2 km altitude and below and was capped by a well defined subsidence inversion A 19 31

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/misc/990212.html (2012-11-14)
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  • 21 January 1999 -- Arkansas Tornado Outbreak
    afternoon and evening of 21 January 1999 the state of Arkansas experienced its largest tornado outbreak ever recorded during the month of January Over 30 tornadoes were reported across the state the strongest tornadoes have been rated at F3 on the Fujita Scale with 8 fatalities Baseball to grapefruit sized hail was also reported at some locations NOAA GOES 8 10 7 micron longwave InfraRed IR and visible imagery above shows the progression of supercell convective systems across the area These loops include Rapid Scan Operations RSO imagery at 5 to 10 minute intervals during the event Preliminary locations of tornadoes and hail exceeding 2 inches in diameter are also plotted on the IR imagery The visible imagery reveals several overshooting tops which appear as subtle texture and shadowing along the anvils of some of the strongest storms GOES 8 Sounder derived Convective Available Potential Entergy CAPE Lifted Index LI and Precipitable Water PW products are shown below The unstable and moisture rich nature of the air mass feeding northeastward into Arkansas and the southern Mississippi valley region is very evident with CAPE values exceeding 2000 J kg g LI values less than 8 C and PW values near 40

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/misc/990121_ARtornados.html (2012-11-14)
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  • 21 January 1999 -- Blowing Dust/Sand Over Northern Mexico and the Southwest U.S.
    the source of sand and dust particulate in high wind events such as this High Wind Warnings and Blowing Dust Advisories were issued for parts of southwest Texas where winds were 40 50 mph with gusts of 70 80 mph in some mountain passes A GOES 8 InfraRed IR temperature difference product above right is helpful in verifying the dust sand nature of the hazy plumes which are seen on the visible imagery Differences in emissivity of the fairly large silicate particles at 10 7 versus 12 0 microns yields a difference in brightness temperature when comparing these two IR channels This IR product could also be used to track the progress of the airborne dust sand at night when visible imagery is no longer available Automated surface reports did record reductions in surface visibilty often less than 1 mile but the cause of the visibility restriction in this case dust sand was often not reported A strong jet streak was rounding the base of a broad trough over the southern Rocky Mountains 500 hPa winds 700 hPa winds Rawinsonde reports from El Paso TX below left reveal the very deep mixed layer by 00 00 UTC on 22 January

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/misc/990121.html (2012-11-14)
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  • 11 January 1999 -- Lake Effect Snow Bands in Western New York
    2400 m The air temperature near the top of the PBL base of the inversion was near 30 C GOES 8 10 7 micron longwave InfraRed IR imagery below left shows that some of the cloud tops within the Lake Ontario LES band were cooling to near 30 C dark blue enhancement indicating that they were near the top of the PBL or perhaps had penetrated into the inversion layer above GOES 8 3 9 micron shortwave IR imagery below right shows that portions of the Lake Ontario band were becoming glaciated and exhibited colder cloud top temperatures lighter gray enhancement the water droplet composition of the non glaciated portions of the cloud band appeared warmer darker gray enhancement due to the fact that water droplets also reflect incoming solar radiation at the 3 9 micron wavelength GOES 8 10 7um longwave IR Java animation GOES 8 3 9um shortwave IR Java animation GOES 8 sounder IR difference product Java animation GOES 8 Sounder Precipitable Water 12 00 22 00 UTC One factor that is important in forecasting the occurrence and severity of LES is the difference in temperature between the relatively warm lake water and the cold air within the lowest 1 2 km of the troposphere As seen from the Buffalo NY rawinsonde and the Lake water temperatures the lake water minus 850 hPa Delta T in this case was on the order of 30 degrees C An example of a GOES 8 Sounder IR temperature difference product above left is shown which can help to estimate the magnitude of the Delta T over portions of the Great Lakes Calculating the difference between Band 8 and Band 5 brightness temperatures generates an estimate of the Delta T over cloud free regions The GOES Sounder weighting functions calculated for

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/misc/990111.html (2012-11-14)
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