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  • 11 December 1998 -- Heavy Snow in Southwest Texas
    Midland KMAF San Angelo KSJT and Abilene KABI Texas These were bands of elevated convection that formed within the moist unstable layer above the 700 hPa level around 3 km NOAA wind profiler data from Jayton Texas showed that the depth of the cold easterly to northeasterly low level flow gradually increased during the day but remained within the lowest 3 5 km of the atmosphere Southwesterly flow prevailed in the mid to upper troposphere with mid level winds backing to the south and southeast as the cyclonic shear zone approached the profiler site GOES 8 6 7 micron IR water vapor imagery below left shows another important satellite signature the intrusion of a mid level dry slot from the Big Bend region into central Texas This dry slot was associated with a jet streak 400 hPa wind streamlines and isotachs 06 00 12 00 18 00 UTC that was advancing northeastward across the area Upward vertical motion within the layer beneath the left exit region of the jet 200 hPa wind divergence 06 00 12 00 18 00 UTC helped to enhanced snowfall rates in the region between Midland San Angelo and Abilene In addition studies such as Johnston 1995 have indicated that the southern edge of a heavy show band is often about 100 km around 1 degree of latitude to the left of the axis of the dry slot in similar synoptic situations compare this case to the 14 Dec 1997 heavy snow event over Mississippi Alabama GOES 8 6 7 um IR water vapor Java animation GOES 8 visible 12 Dec Java animation GOES 8 visible imagery from the day after the storm above right shows the areal extent of the snow cover that resulted from this system As the snow pack began to melt during

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/misc/981211.html (2012-11-14)
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  • 04 December 1998 -- Popocatepetl Volcano in Mexico
    City station identifier MMMX although parts of the ash cloud could be seen drifting to the south This difference in ash cloud motion was due to wind shear in the upper troposphere the bulk of the ash cloud was ejected higher into the atmosphere around 31 000 feet or near the 300 hPa pressure level where the winds had an easterly or southeasterly component Weaker pulses from the eruption sequence

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/misc/981204.html (2012-11-14)
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  • 02 November 1998 -- Nocturnal Fog and Stratus Over the Northern Plains
    product is shown below along with an image of the topography of the region This fog stratus product created by taking the difference between 10 7 and 3 9 micron IR brightness temperatures does an even better job at highlighting the motion and areal extent of the low cloud features The concave shape of the eastern edge of the low cloudiness across southwestern Minnesota northeastern South Dakota southeastern North Dakota

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/misc/981102.html (2012-11-14)
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  • 26 October 1998 -- Hurricane Mitch in the Caribbean Sea
    imagery above show the very large diameter of 20 nautical miles well defined eye and very cold cloud top temperatures below 80 C exhibited by this storm Rapid scan visible imagery at 5 10 minute intervals reveals some interesting low cloud motions within the eye of the storm Some photographs from the Air Force Reserve hurricane hunter flight into the eye of Mitch are available here The upper level storm outflow was well established and nearly symmetric as shown by GOES 8 water vapor winds and divergence below GOES 8 low level visible winds at 15 45 and 21 45 UTC revealed that tropical storm force winds greater than 34 knots entended far from the center of Mitch as far north and northwest as Cuba and the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico Winds from a NOAA reconnaissance aircraft dropsonde were measured at 173 knots and the central pressure was estimated to be 905 millibars making this one of the strongest Atlantic basin storms on record especially for so late in the season GOES 8 water vapor winds GOES 8 water vapor wind divergence The GOES 8 satellite experienced a data outage the following day 27 October however a 3 channel composite

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/misc/981026.html (2012-11-14)
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  • 19 September 1998 -- Hurricane Georges in the Atlantic Ocean
    1998 with maximum sustained winds to 145 MPH NOAA GOES 8 visible and 10 7 micron longwave InfraRed IR imagery above revealed the well defined eye and cold cloud top temperatues exhibited by the storm on that day Georges continued to move northwestward across the Atlantic below affecting the Leeward Islands and Puerto Rico on 21 September the Florida Keys on 25 September and eventually the Gulf Coast region of

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/misc/980919.html (2012-11-14)
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  • 15 September 1998 -- Mesoscale Vortex Over the North Atlantic
    this IR channel peaks in the middle to upper troposphere usually between 500 and 300 hPa The 12 00 UTC run of the ETA model on 15 September showed no hint of this feature at 1000 hPa or 850 hPa In the upper troposphere 400 hPa the ETA did reveal a cyclonic circulation located to the southeast of the vortex This upper level cyclone had remained nearly stationary near 29 North latitude 70 West longitude during the preceeding day 14 September as indicated by GOES 8 water vapor imagery The low level vortex did not appear as well defined in GOES 8 visible imagery on 14 September but it could be seen drifting slowly northward along the 70 West longitude line that day the clusters of strong convection that developed near 30 N 70 W from late in the day 14 September to early in the day 15 September were likely due to low level convergence being enhanced by the vortex as upper level diffluence was occurring within the deformation zone just northeast of the upper level cyclone On 15 September the vortex began to move westward as it traversed from the eastern quadrant to the northern quadrant of the stationary upper level cyclone convection across that region was seen to dissipate after the departure of the low level vortex The GOES 8 cloud tracked winds shown below were produced by the CIMSS Tropical Cyclones Team On the left low resolution visible cloud tracked winds did not indicate any evidence of the vortex circulation although a 20 knot wind vector was calculated near the western edge of the feature These winds were calculated using lower resolution 4km visible imagery at 30 minute intervals On the right are high resolution visible winds calculated using 1km resolution imagery at 15 minute intervals

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/misc/980915.html (2012-11-14)
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  • 02 September 1998 -- "Blue Rain" in Argentina
    A utomated S moke A erosol D etection A lgorithm ASADA products and visible imagery above were processed by the CIMSS Biomass Burning Monitoring Program These images show the southward movement of a large smoke pall over central South America from 30 August to 02 September 1998 Smoke associated with fire activity extended over nearly 5 million square kilometers Wind streamlines at 700 millibars about 3 0 km in altitude indicate that an anticyclone was in place over southeastern Brazil during this period Northerly flow along the western periphery of this anticyclone helped to advect the smoke southward from Brazil into Bolivia Paraguay and eventually northern Argentina Convection over northeastern Argentina on 02 September produced rain that appeared blue in color due to the large amount of airborne smoke and ash particulate that was scavenged by the precipitation The GOES 8 A utomated B iomass B urning A logorithm ABBA derived fire product indicated that thousands of fires were burning throughout Brazil Bolivia Paraguay and Northern Argentina during the last week of August and the first week of September On 01 September 1998 the GOES ABBA detected over 2400 fires at 1745 UTC as seen in the 4 panel below

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/misc/980902_smoke.html (2012-11-14)
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  • 02 September 1998 -- Fires in Idaho and Montana
    dark pixels associated with the source regions of the major fires A few fires can be seen to flare up during the time period of the above IR loop these hot spots suddenly appear in western and northwestern Montana Also note that some hot spots are evident in the shortwave IR imagery before a smoke plume can be seen in the corresponding visible imagery GOES 8 3 9 micron shortwave IR below left and 10 7 micron longwave IR below right show the thermal effects of some of the major smoke plumes These enhanced hourly IR images also display surface reports of temperature and dew point F as well as the surface wind barbs and gusts knots Note how the large smoke plume which originates over extreme eastern Montana near Miles City MT station identifier MLS eventually drifts southeastward into northwestern South Dakota over Buffalo SD station identifer 2WX The surface temperature at Buffalo is seen to cool from the mid 90 s F down to 88 F at 23 45 UTC 5 45 PM local time while surrounding stations remained in the 90 s After sunset Buffalo s temperature was similar to that at surrounding stations 76 F at 01 45 UTC or 7 45 PM local time but then remained steady at 73 F for the next two hours 02 45 03 45 UTC or 8 45 9 45 PM local time while surrounding stations became cooler Smoke is typically transparent to thermal radiation at these wavelengths so the effects noted on Buffalo s surface temperature while under the smoke plume cooling due to reduced solar heating before sunset then steady after sunset while surrounding stations experienced radiative cooling imply that a significant amount of water vapor was present within this plume The satellite sensed this water vapor

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/misc/980902.html (2012-11-14)
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