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  • 23 September 1997 -- Fires in Virginia and North Carolina
    an image from the same time on September 22 1997 will reveal that the hot spots are not in the same location indicating that they are probably the result of agricultural burning or wildfires At 16 45 UTC the time the fires were observed in the 4 micron image cloud cover may be obscuring the detection of plumes in the Virginia area The plumes which are visible have been marked

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/misc/970923.html (2012-11-14)
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  • 12 September 1997 -- Hurricane Linda
    temperatures colder than 80 C The storm intensity was estimated to be T7 5 to T8 0 on the Dvorak scale and a Category 5 on the Saffir Simpson scale with maximum sustained wind speeds of 160 knots 82 ms 1 gusting to 190 knots 98 ms 1 Minimum central pressure was estimated to be 900 hPa 26 58 inches of mercury GOES 9 and GOES 8 visible imagery below

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/misc/970912.html (2012-11-14)
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  • 04 September 1997 -- Radiational Cooling, Fog and Low Cloud
    of this radiational cooling since land radiates thermal energy to space faster than water the many rivers and lakes appear darker warmer than their surroundings Urban heat islands are more apparent on GOES 8 IR channel 2 imagery especially cities such as Indianapolis Indiana IND and Dayton DAY and Columbus CMH in Ohio Many locations across this region set record low temperatures for the date Upslope flow around the western side of the high pressure combined with the radiational cooling to produce an extensive area of low cloud across the central Plains The GOES 8 fog product right more distinctly shows the low cloud extending into northern Kansas and central Nebraska as well as other isolated low cloud features across northeastern Oklahoma northwestern Arkansas and portions of the southern Appalachians Note how these areas of low cloud are not as evident if at all on the IR channel 4 product For more information about the GOES fog product see the CIRA 3 9 micrometer tutorial While the fog product is an excellent tool for determining the areal coverage of the low cloud features one must use caution in labeling such features as fog In this case surface observations over the

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/misc/970904.html (2012-11-14)
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  • 27 August 1997 -- Convective cloud top plume and a storm merger
    feature that is sometimes observed with convective cloud tops a plume of enhanced cloud top reflectivity which is detected using shortwave infrared channel 2 and longwave infrared channel 4 data The appearance of this plume results from the fact that the 3 9 micrometer IR channel 2 is very sensitive to variations in the microphysical properties of clouds cloud droplet size ice vs supercooled water etc There is no clear connection between these satellite plume signatures and the strength of the associated convection or the occurence of severe weather These plumes often originate just downwind from the region of coldest cloud tops see Doswell et al 1996 23 02 UT 27 August GOES 8 IR channel 4 01 45 UT 28 August GOES 8 IR channel 4 GOES 8 IR Java animation Glasgow MT Doppler radar animated GIF As this convective system propagated southeastward across the U S Canada border the right flanking convective cluster merged with a newer cluster developing over extreme northeastern Montana Such storm mergers often result in a phase of convective intensification manifested by a rapid cooling of cloud top temperatures Following this merger over eastern Roosevelt and Sheridan counties in Montana the radar echoes assumed

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/misc/970827.html (2012-11-14)
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  • 13 August 1997 -- Upper Level Cyclonic Circulations and Shear Instability Revealed by Water Vapor Imagery
    northwest of Tropical Storm Hilda was important because of its effect on the development and motion of the storm Due to the close proximity of this upper level circulation to that of Hilda wind shear was unfavorable for the rapid development of the tropical system A distinct plume of water vapor and high clouds associated with an active jet stream can be seen arcing northeastward toward the southern coast of Alaska Wind streamline and isotach analyses overlaid on the water vapor and IR channel 4 images reveal that the jet was curving around the western and northern periphery of an anticyclone centered over the Gulf of Alaska A core of wind speeds in excess of 60 m s 1 was located over southeastern Alaska The southern edge of this jet was marked by a sharp discontiuity on the water vapor imagery A Java animation shows that this boundary was smooth along the right rear entrance region of the jet but small perturbations developed just south of the core and also along the right front exit region of the jet speed maximum Such a water vapor signature is sometimes seen along anticyclonically curving jet stream segments and can indicate regions of moderate to severe turbulence induced by shear instability at high altitudes The Anchorage National Weather Service highlighted the region along the southeast Alaska coast as having a risk of moderate high altitude turbulence Another jet streak was moving westward along the southern periphery of the Gulf of Alaska anticyclone The same Java animation reveals that a wave like feature developed along the deformation zone just south of this second jet circulation This feature could not be detected using conventional IR channel 4 imagery As with the shear instability noted above over the Gulf of Alaska this type of satellite signature

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/misc/970813.html (2012-11-14)
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  • GOES Sounder -- Volcano
    information about a pixel to the west and east of the Island of Monserrat LA 9007 area ss yyddd hhmmss lcor ecor lr er zr lsiz esiz z bands 9007 71 97218 192000 5401 8931 10 10 19 160 288 2 123456789ABCDEFG LA Done NOTE AT THE POINT WEST OF THE ISLAND NOTE SCALED x100 RADIANCES GIMD R LINE ELEM LAT LON LZEN SZEN ELEV SURF VIS 6436 9945 1672 6249 2426 4755 0 0 13 CHAN1 CHAN2 CHAN3 CHAN4 CHAN5 CHAN6 CHAN7 CHAN8 CHAN9 4099 3830 6039 7567 8386 9543 9478 8044 4220 CHA10 CHA11 CHA12 CHA13 CHA14 CHA15 CHA16 CHA17 CHA18 1836 1100 358 14760 7942 1884 10559 12677 11009 NOTE SCALED x100 BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURES GIMD LINE ELEM LAT LON LZEN SZEN ELEV SURF VIS 6436 9945 1672 6249 2426 4755 0 0 13 CHAN1 CHAN2 CHAN3 CHAN4 CHAN5 CHAN6 CHAN7 CHAN8 CHAN9 21626 21476 23938 25451 26234 27488 27838 27678 25835 CHA10 CHA11 CHA12 CHA13 CHA14 CHA15 CHA16 CHA17 CHA18 26208 25425 23505 27719 26486 23977 29071 30317 31345 NOTE AT THE POINT EAST OF THE ISLAND NOTE SCALED x100 RADIANCES GIMD R LINE ELEM LAT LON LZEN SZEN ELEV SURF VIS 6445 10005 1664 6191 2459

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/misc/sndvol.html (2012-11-14)
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  • 06 August 1997 -- Fires in Louisiana and California
    order of 3 degrees K yet the maximum brightness temperatures for each of the 3 fires are much warmer as observed from GOES 8 This is due in part to the viewing geometry for GOES 8 located at 75 W longitude versus GOES 9 located at 135 W longitude and the associated atmospheric attenuation differences The primary reason for the large fire pixel brightness temperature disparity can be attributed to the fact that the GOES 8 field of view is smaller than that of GOES 9 in this region Any given fire in this part of the United States occupies a larger fraction of the GOES 8 field of view resulting in a higher overall fire pixel brightness temperature The GOES 8 and GOES 9 shortwave IR images below show a large 10 000 acre wildfire which was spreading rapidly in the Los Padres National Forest area of southern California on the same day In this case the viewing geometry is such that a given fire would occupy a larger fraction of the GOES 9 field of view yeilding a warmer fire pixel brightness temperature than GOES 8 However the maximum temperature measured for this particular fire was 325 0

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/misc/970806.html (2012-11-14)
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  • 25-26 July 1997 -- Tornadic Supercell near Madison, WI
    50 mm across southwestern Wisconsin at 23 46 UT and a NW SE oriented axis of lifted indices around 8 was apparent along the outflow boundary Surface dewpoint temperatures were very high mid 70 s to mid 80 s F another indicator of the latent instability of the air mass Southern Wisconsin was beneath the right rear quadrant right entrance region of an upper level jet streak where upper level divergence induced synoptic scale upward vertical motion An environment of strong vertical wind shear developed as surface winds became southeasterly in the vicinity of Madison while middle and upper level winds were from the west northwest The Storm Prediction Center issued a Tornado Watch at 00 27 UT 7 27 PM CDT for southern Wisconsin and northern Illinois and the Milwaukee Sullivan NWS forecast office issued the first Tornado Warning at 00 31 UT 7 31 PM CDT A Java animation of GOES 8 visible imagery shows the rapid development of the convection from 23 15 UT on 25 July to 00 45 UT on 26 July 6 15 PM to 7 45 PM CDT At 23 15 UT two distinct convective towers were evident just northwest of Madison By

    Original URL path: http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/misc/970725.html (2012-11-14)
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