archive-edu.com » EDU » W » WISC.EDU

Total: 253

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".
  • Recreation Conflict - Values Conflict
    in the city A survey of 971 residents revealed their attitudes towards a tightly controlled moose hunting scenario with survey respondents being asked to rate different hunt outcomes as likely and unlikely as well as whether they were viewed the outcomes as as good or bad Results showed that a majority 51 support for the hunt although 34 were opposed and 15 were undecided Not surprisingly there was considerable divergence in opinion between those who supported the hunt and those opposed to it on such issues as whether the hunt would reduce accidents reduce encounters permanently reduce numbers injure someone cost a lot to administer prevent non hunter use or eliminate moose in the area Respondents unsure about the hunt generally held beliefs that were intermediate between those for and against the hunt offering an explanation for their neutrality The results revealed which hunt factors were based more on peoples values and which factors might be influenced by management action or education programs Vaske J M Donnelly K Wittmann and S Laidlaw 1995 Interpersonal versus social values conflict Leisure Sciences 17 3 205 222 This study empirically examines the theoretical distinction between interpersonal conflict and conflict in social values using empirical data from surveys of visitors to Mt Evans Colorado The results of the study indicate that interpersonal conflicts between hunters and nonhunters are relatively low with very few nonhunters or former hunters seeing an animal being shot less than 5 seeing people hunting 10 or less and hearing gunshots 15 or less More people had seen others feeding wildlife between 43 of nonhunters and 62 for hunters and disturbing or harrassing wildlife 18 for nonhunters to 37 for hunters Generally however the natural visual barriers and the managing agency s regulations that prohibit hunting near the road were minimized

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/people/marcouiller/projects/clearinghouse/Recreation/RecValues%20Conflict.htm (2014-11-22)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Recreation Conflict - Crowding
    product shift theory as norms for off river encounters did not increase and user satisfaction decreased slightly The authors conclude that this last finding should be viewed cautiously as satisfaction is influenced by many factors and their findings do not allow any assumptions about causality to be made Robertson R A and J A Regula 1994 Recreational displacement and overall satisfaction A study of central Iowa licensed boaters Journal of Leisure Research 26 2 174 181 This study examines the extent to which displacement occurred among boaters on the Rock Reservoir in central Iowa Unlike previous displacement studies this study employs a stratified random sample of boat owners rather than Reservoir users as its data collection methodology Only answers from those users having reported at least one visit to the Reservoir were used in this study A total of 45 of respondents indicate that they were displaced from the Reservoir because of siltation while 14 indicated they visited the Reservoir on the weekend to avoids crowds Boaters who were displaced from the reservoir were less satisfied with their most recent boating experience at the reservoir than those who were not displaced The study findings also indicate that boaters were willing to make trade offs in site characteristics accepting the siltation of the Reservoir while avoiding crowds at other reservoirs Kuentzel W F and T A Heberlein 1992 Cognitive and behavioral adaptations to perceived crowding A panel study of coping and displacement Journal of Leisure Research 24 4 377 393 This study uses data collected from a panel of boaters at the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore in 1975 and a subsequent resurvey n 397 in 1985 to test the relationship of perceived crowding in 1975 to attitude changes cognitive coping strategies and behavioral shifts intrasite displacement and discontinued participation at the Apostle Islands The researchers present a hierarchical crowding model that proposes that crowding is the first copping mechanism used by those feeling crowded intrasite displacement is used by those feeling more crowded displacement to other sites by those feeling most crowded However the results of this study found no support for the hierarchical crowding model Instead those who felt most crowded were more likely to use a intrasite displacement behaviors and avoid the more crowded islands The use of cognitive coping strategies were not significantly related to crowding scores and those boaters who stopped coming to the Apostle Islands did so for reasons other than crowding These findings indicate that intrasite displacement provides an adequate coping strategy for boaters at the Apostle Islands The notion that increasing use levels will necessarily drive the most sensitive users away is not supported among boaters at the Apostle Islands This may related to specific factors related to the Apostle Islands not as crowded as other areas and diversity of sites and the lack of good substitutes for the majority of Apostle Islands boaters Hammitt W E and M E Patterson 1991 Coping behavior to avoid visitor encounters Its relationship to wildland policy Journal

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/people/marcouiller/projects/clearinghouse/Recreation/RecCoping.htm (2014-11-22)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Recreation Conflict - Stress Theory
    the options of changing one s own behavior or understandings were no longer seen as adequate responses The transactional stress model emphasizes that recreational conflict is product of an on going transaction between the person the environment and the results of coping Recreational settings therefore are constantly changing not only as a result of management decision and natural processes but also due to social processes Coping behaviors can help recreationists maintain satisfaction with their activity but may also change the recreational setting These reactions set the stage for further transactive relationships and stress relationships Schuster R and W E Hammitt 2000 Effective coping strategies in stressful outdoor recreation situations Conflict on the Ocoee River USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS P 15 4 167 174 This study surveyed private boaters mostly kayakers on the Ocoee River and their experience with conflict on the river Seventy two percent of boaters had experienced some conflict In this study the stress response model conceptualized by Lazarus and Folkman was tested for significance Despite the relatively high level of conflict the stress response model could be not be supported Like other conflict studies this study found no significant relationship between the conflict or stress situation and the response Conflict did not necessarily result in decreased satisfaction levels Given the high levels of previous experience with boating on the Ocoee River one possible explanation is that boaters had come to expect conflict a social norm and had found ways to cope with the conflict and not let it affect their satisfaction with their experience Schneider I and W Hammitt 1995 Visitor response to outdoor recreation conflict A conceptual approach Leisure Sciences 17 3 223 234 This paper suggests outdoor recreation conflict involves two primary dimensions 1 a visitor s perception of conflict and 2 a visitor

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/people/marcouiller/projects/clearinghouse/Recreation/RecStress%20Theory.htm (2014-11-22)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Recreation Conflict - Affect and Emotions
    self administered survey shortly after encountering a snowmobile while skiers in the control group filled out a self administered survey without having been exposed to a snowmobile Surveys respondents were given no clue as to the relationship of the snowmobile and survey being conducted Results showed that relative to the control group skiers who encountered a snowmobile had the quality of their affective experiences as measured by feelings of relaxation peacefulness joy harmony annoyance significantly reduced This result points to the subjective nature of recreation conflict Furthermore the encounter with the snowmobile effected the participants beliefs about the extent to which noise from snowmobiles disturbed the quality of ski touring in general Lee B and C S Shafer 2002 The dynamic nature of leisure experience An application of Affect Control Theory Journal of Leisure Research 34 3 290 310 This study represents a relatively new body of research within the recreation conflict literature that of the subjective emotional state of the user Leisure and recreation experiences are generally believed to emerge through a dynamic interaction process Affect Control Theory provides one basis for understanding emotions experienced during the recreation experience This study adopts the theory and applies it a survey of 111 respondents on multiple use trail in an urban greenway The INTERACT II program is used to predict emotions based on respondents evaluations of events they encountered along the trail The paper presents specific examples from the survey of how and why emotions differ both within a respondent s experience and between respondents experiences For example the event saw a lot of fish was associated with mostly positive emotions such as cheerful pleased peaceful or serene While the event passed on narrow part of trail was associated with a wider range of emotions from cheerful and satisfied to petrified

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/people/marcouiller/projects/clearinghouse/Recreation/RecAffect%20and%20Emotions.htm (2014-11-22)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Recreation Conflict - Displacement
    Smith Wilderness on the Targhee National Forest Respondents were asked about past encounters with llamas perceptions of conflicts and problems resulting from llama use and attitudes toward five dimensions of social acceptability of llamas social conflict safety physical impacts managerial equity and philosophical appropriateness Conflicts and problems related to llama use were low in both study areas though horseback riders were more likely to have concerns than hikers In general the results indicated that the social acceptability of new or non traditional activities is not just a the result of judgments related to social environmental and managerial conditions Factors such as safety and philosophical appropriateness were also important elements in visitors assessments of acceptability of llama packing Managers cannot assume that a non traditional activity is unacceptable and should focus on informational and educational approaches rather than simple reliance on zoning areas for different activities Given the results of this study managers also cannot assume that all packstock horses and llamas should be zoned together Watson A E M J Niccolucci and D R Williams 1994 The nature of conflict between hikers and recreational stock users in the John Muir Wilderness Journal of Leisure Research 26 4 372 385 This study investigates the extent of conflict between hikers and recreational stock users in the John Muir Wilderness in the Sierra Nevada wilderness and tests the relative importance of various hypothetical predictors of conflict using multiple conflict measures The ability to predict conflict between the two user groups was high when using the goal interference dimensions of conflict definition of place specialization focus of trip expectations and lifestyle tolerance However this study found the strongest relationship was between hypothesized determinants and the attitudes hikers maintain toward encountering stock groups rather than between hypothesized determinants and a goal interference measure of conflict This finding suggests that conflict may arise because of other incompatibilities besides goals such as visitor norms Watson A E M J Niccolucci and D R Williams 1993 Hikers and recreational stocks users Predicting and managing conflicts in three wildernesses Intermountain Research Station Research Paper INT 468 United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service This study takes a detailed look at conflicts between hikers and recreational stock users in three wilderness areas the John Muir Wilderness the Sequoia Kings Canyon Wilderness and the Charles C Deam Wilderness Using the goal interference model proposed by Jacob and Schreyer along with modifications suggested by subsequent research the determinants of conflict between these two users groups were assessed through user surveys Three measures of conflict two attitudinal enjoyment dislike and a 5 point Likert scale of desirable to undesirable and one goal interference interference with with the quality of a wilderness experience were used to assess 17 potential predictors of conflict The predictors of conflict more accurately predicted attitudinal measures of conflict than they predicted the goal interference measure of conflict which is a result consistent with other research Strong and consistent predictors of conflict between hikers and horse users were general feelings of inappropriateness of horse use in wilderness differences in perceptions of visitors status related to horse use differences in the strength of attachment to the wilderness and the value placed on opportunities for solitude From a management perspective the option of separating uses by providing some trails for hikers only is generally supported by hikers but not by horse users The authors conclude that while persuasive and educational messages may reduce conflict between hikers and horse users if managers fail to reduce the number of encounters that create conflict or impacts of horse use that hikers label as inappropriate they may find some restrictions on horse use to be necessary Hunters and Others Vaske J M Donnelly K Wittmann and S Laidlaw 1995 Interpersonal versus social values conflict Leisure Sciences 17 3 205 222 This study empirically examines the theoretical distinction between interpersonal conflict and conflict in social values using empirical data from surveys of visitors to Mt Evans Colorado The results of the study indicate that interpersonal conflicts between hunters and nonhunters are relatively low with very few nonhunters or former hunters seeing an animal being shot less than 5 seeing people hunting 10 or less and hearing gunshots 15 or less More people had seen others feeding wildlife between 43 of nonhunters and 62 for hunters and disturbing or harassing wildlife 18 for nonhunters to 37 for hunters Generally however the natural visual barriers and the managing agency s regulations that prohibit hunting near the road were minimized due to the mountain s natural visual barriers However to the extent that conflict exists with hunting associated event son Mt Evans much of problem stems from differences in social values held by hunting and nonhunting publics For many of measures reported above there was more reported perceived problems than there were observed events Analyses examining the interaction between type of visitor hunters versus nonhunters and number of prior visits first visit two to four visits and five or more visits suggested that conflicts in social values remained constant across frequency of visitation but varied between visitor type Hay M J and K E McConnel 1984 Harvesting and nonconsumptive wildlife recreation decisions Land Economics 60 4 388 396 This study addresses the question of whether individuals make joint decisions to hunt and observe wildlife Using data from national surveys conducted in 1971 and 1975 a recreation participation decision model is constructed The analysis demonstrated some degree of complementarity between the two uses The results point toward the important conclusion that natural resource policy decisions will not only have direct effects on the activity of interest but important indirect effects on activities complementary to the activity of interest When model equations are specified without considering the possibility of joint participation decisions they may exclude important determinants include variables incorrectly or in general be misspecified Jet Skis Personal Watercraft and Others Roe M and J Benson 2001 Planning for conflict resolution Jet ski use on the Northumberland coast Coastal Management 29 1

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/people/marcouiller/projects/clearinghouse/Recreation/RecInter.htm (2014-11-22)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Applied Tourism Economic Impact Analysis - Canoeing, Kayaking and Whitewater Rafting
    study uses a comparative analysis of 35 studies which represent the views of over 17 000 people in 59 different recreation settings to study crowding in outdoor recreation All the studies use a single item nine point Likert scale to assess visitor judgments of crowding If the nine point scale is divided to reflect the percentage of respondents experiencing at least some crowding crowding scores ranged from 12 100 with a mean of 57 The comparative analysis suggested that crowding is influenced by a range of factors including time resource availability accessibility and convenience and management strategy While factors that were found not to influence crowding included region of the United States whether the activity was consumptive or non consumptive and the methodology used to collect the data on site surveys or mailed surveys This study also reexamined earlier work to that looked to use crowding ratings to identify areas with potential carrying capacity problems In general crowding does help to identify carrying capacity problems Areas with crowding in the 35 50 range appear to no problem areas Areas with crowding in the 50 65 range should be looked at closely while in areas with more than 65 crowding there is definite problem If visitor numbers and impacts are an important part of the experience it makes sense to freeze use levels immediately when crowding reaches 65 or greater When more than 80 of visitors feel crowded the only management option to manage these areas for high density experiences Westover T N and J R J Collins 1987 Perceived crowding in recreation settings an urban case study Leisure Sciences 9 87 99 This study unlike much of the work on crowding and conflict in recreation investigates crowding at Potter Park an urban park in Lansing Michigan A total of 154 parks users were surveyed for their perceptions of crowding inappropriate behavior and dissimilar others Overall these findings demonstrate relatively low levels of perceived crowding even though there were relatively high visitor numbers However compared to outdoor and wilderness recreation studies this study did find that actual use levels were more closely associated with crowding evaluations than in other studies A number of factors may have influenced these results including small park size and lack of visual screening It may also be that the perception of visitor densities in urban parks is less value laden than it is in outdoor recreation and based more on visual levels than on beliefs about appropriate use levels Other factors and their relationship to perceived crowding were also investigated including socio economic status Individuals with higher socio economic status were less likely rather than more likely as has been the case in outdoor recreation studies to perceive crowding and particularly during high use time This may be the result of a wider range of experience and expectations that match actual experience more closely Moreover the higher proportion of well educated people during low use times may suggest that these individuals may have a wider range of site choices and avoid the park during times when they expected it be unacceptably crowded Other factors such as Chambers T W M and C Price 1986 Recreational congestion some hypotheses tested in the forest of Dean Rural Studies 2 1 41 52 Many studies have failed to find an adverse relationship between crowding and visitors responses This study looks to test a number hypotheses which may explain these past results including influence of environmental and site factors amount of vegetation at a site and its influence on site lines displacement in terms of timing or choice of site absence of expectations or impact of investment in getting to the site Overall the study found most support for the vegetation displacement and no expectations hypotheses with less convincing support for the environmental and investment hypotheses Overall the researchers find that the results of this study restore some credibility to the visitor satisfaction density model From a management perspective the implications of this research are that there are clearly crowd adverse and less crowd averse sub groups Management actions that attempt to disperse all recreational pressures and facilities evenly through a recreational area may only cause conflict with the crowd adverse sub group and is not necessary to ensure the satisfaction of another sub group The natural tendency of different sub groups to segregate into areas of different intensity of use should not be thwarted Hammitt W E C D McDonald and F P Noe 1984 Use level and encounters Important variables of perceived crowding among nonspecialized recreationists Journal of Leisure Research 16 1 1 8 This study looked at the perceptions of crowding amongst non specialized recreationists innertube floaters on the Hiwassee River in Tennessee Regression analysis was used to test the comparative contribution of four variables identified in earlier research as part of perceived crowding model use level visual encounters crowding expectations and user feelings toward crowding Only 47 of the variance among innertube floaters was explained by these variables while 43 was explained by just the two variables of use level and reported visual encounters As compared to studies of more specialized recreational users such as backcountry hikers or river rafters much less variance perceived crowding was explained by expectations and feelings This result makes good theoretical sense as non specialized recreationists are not likely to have a developed norms or expectations concerning appropriateness or have much commitment to the activity in terms of equipment trip planning or overall importance Shelby B T A Heberlein J J Vaske and G Alfano 1983 Expectations preferences and feeling crowded in recreation activities Leisure Sciences 6 1 1 14 This study investigates perceived crowding amongst different types of recreation users hunters canoers and river floaters Self reported questionnaires were administered in six different studies with a total response rate of over 3000 individuals For each study the users were asked to report on how many contacts they had with other users the number of contacts they had expected during their

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/people/marcouiller/projects/clearinghouse/Recreation/RecCrowding.htm (2014-11-22)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Recreation Conflict - Satisfaction
    diminished satisfaction is largely dependent on whether the users engage in coping behaviors Shindler B and B Shelby 1995 Product shift in recreation settings findings and implications from panel research Leisure Sciences 17 2 91 107 This study uses data from two surveys of the same individuals on the Rogue River to asses the level of product shift behaviors users responding to to changing social or environmental conditions by changing their definition of the recreation experience River floaters who were surveyed in a 1977 study were recontacted in 1991 Results from this study confirmed earlier findings and indicate that visitors are more more likely to change experience definitions than to become dissatisfied their experience definitions change toward higher density experiences their float party encounter norms increase and perceived crowding does not change However other findings contradicted the product shift theory as norms for off river encounters did not increase and user satisfaction decreased slightly The authors conclude that this last finding should be viewed cautiously as satisfaction is influenced by many factors and their findings do not allow any assumptions about causality to be made Robertson R A and J A Regula 1994 Recreational displacement and overall satisfaction A study of central Iowa licensed boaters Journal of Leisure Research 26 2 174 181 This study examines the extent to which displacement occurred among boaters on the Rock Reservoir in central Iowa Unlike previous displacement studies this study employs a stratified random sample of boat owners rather than Reservoir users as its data collection methodology Only answers from those users having reported at least one visit to the Reservoir were used in this study A total of 45 of respondents indicate that they were displaced from the Reservoir because of siltation while 14 indicated they visited the Reservoir on the weekend to avoids crowds Boaters who were displaced from the reservoir were less satisfied with their most recent boating experience at the reservoir than those who were not displaced The study findings also indicate that boaters were willing to make trade offs in site characteristics accepting the siltation of the Reservoir while avoiding crowds at other reservoirs Herrick T A and C D McDonald 1992 Factors affecting overall satisfaction with a river recreation experience Environmental Management 16 2 243 247 Visitor satisfaction has been consistent way for managers to evaluate the stated goals of recreation management Often the high satisfaction is seen as indicating a lack of conflict between recreation users This study examines the importance of a setting dimension relative to behavioral type dimensions for explaining differences in visitor satisfaction Regression analysis of 682 surveys of river users indicated that the setting dimension was ranked as one of the most important variables for explaining differences in visitor satisfaction Other important variables included group behavior perceived crowding parking encounters and past experience However these six variables combined only accounted for 31 of the variance Shelby B and J J Vaske 1991 Using normative data to develop evaluative standards for resource management A comment on 3 recent papers Journal of Leisure Research 23 2 173 187 Social norms are increasingly being used to set recreation management goals and objectives and is one tool for management recreation conflict Social norms are measured empirically by aggregating norms measured at the personal level This paper reviews three studies that examine issues related to the measurement and definition of management norms and comments on the issues they raise Two of the studies find that norms are not a useful criterion for managing overall satisfaction of the visitor experience but that norms are likely quite useful for setting management standards The third study highlights a number of issues with norms including the fact that they are likely to exist more in low encounter activities and the challenge of identifying a consensus or acceptable level of norm agreement for them to be used as management standards Using norms as evaluative management standards is a relatively new approach and this paper s author highlights the importance of not confusing the process of resolving theoretical and methodological issues with the application of the technique to management Chambers T W M and C Price 1986 Recreational congestion some hypotheses tested in the forest of Dean Rural Studies 2 1 41 52 Many studies have failed to find an adverse relationship between crowding and visitors responses This study looks to test a number hypotheses which may explain these past results including influence of environmental and site factors amount of vegetation at a site and its influence on site lines displacement in terms of timing or choice of site absence of expectations or impact of investment in getting to the site Overall the study found most support for the vegetation displacement and no expectations hypotheses with less convincing support for the environmental and investment hypotheses Overall the researchers find that the results of this study restore some credibility to the visitor satisfaction density model From a management perspective the implications of this research are that there are clearly crowd adverse and less crowd averse sub groups Management actions that attempt to disperse all recreational pressures and facilities evenly through a recreational area may only cause conflict with the crowd adverse sub group and is not necessary to ensure the satisfaction of another sub group The natural tendency of different sub groups to segregate into areas of different intensity of use should not be thwarted Shelby B and T A Heberlein 1986 Carrying capacity in recreation settings Corvalis Oregon State University Press This book develops a general conceptual framework for carrying capacity in recreation management and research Social carrying capacity is viewed primarily as a way to merge research and management traditions concerned with establishing appropriate use levels in terms of both crowding and natural resource deterioration The framework includes descriptive elements of use levels evaluation of recreation systems and management standards The authors tackle the issue of lack of correlation between crowding and satisfaction and density and perceived and conclude that normative standards

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/people/marcouiller/projects/clearinghouse/Recreation/RecSatisfaction.htm (2014-11-22)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Recreation Conflict - Management
    lower levels of off road vehicle access They favored a mixture of mature closed canopy and younger more open forests over either extreme and were somewhat indifferent toward extending the network of hiking trails These study illustrates one approach for determining peoples perceptions on the relatively compatibility between different recreation uses Hammitt W E 1998 The spectrum of conflict in outdoor recreation Proceedings of the Outdoor Recreation Forum Jan 13 14 1988 Tampa This paper discusses the Recreation Opportunities Spectrum ROS framework which offers a means for planning and managing recreation lands so as to prevent potential conflict situations from occurring The paper relies on the goal interference model of conflict for understanding how conflict arises The degree of recreation conflict is seen to be influenced by three primary characteristics 1 spatial and temporal proximity of activities 2 degree of environmental dominance inherent in each activity e g consumptive vs non consumptive and 3 the extent of participants dependence on technology Conflict also occurs among different combinations of three actor groups visitors park managers and adjacent community members The ROS framework adopts the viewpoint that recreation resource managers produce recreation opportunities A recreation opportunity has three components an activity a resource setting and an experiential component This paper identifies the potential for conflict within each of these three components and suggests methods for avoiding and mitigating in each of these cases Chavez D J 1996 Mountain biking Issues and actions for USDA Forest Service managers Pacific Southwest Research Station Research Paper PSW RP 226 Albany USDA Forest Service This is largely a descriptive study of the types of issues that USDA Forest Service managers encounter with the management of mountain biking on Forest Service lands A number of issues are identified including issues of management resource damage user conflicts safety and accidents In terms of user conflicts managers were asked to indicated the actions that they use to minimize conflicts Survey respondents indicated four broad categories of actions which are listed in ranked order by frequency of use information education cooperation visitor restrictions and resource hardening Blahna D K Smith and J Anderson 1995 Backcountry llama packing Visitor perceptions of acceptability and conflict Leisure Sciences 17 3 185 204 This paper investigates the reaction of visitors to encountering a non traditional backcountry recreational activities llama packing The research is based primarily on the goal interference model of conflict but this study also expands the conception of conflict beyond intergroup characteristics by using other metrics that measure levels of social acceptability A survey of 337 visitors was conducted at the Bechler Meadow region of Yellowstone National Park and the Jedediah Smith Wilderness on the Targhee National Forest Respondents were asked about past encounters with llamas perceptions of conflicts and problems resulting from llama use and attitudes toward five dimensions of social acceptability of llamas social conflict safety physical impacts managerial equity and philosophical appropriateness Conflicts and problems related to llama use were low in both study areas though horseback riders were more likely to have concerns than hikers In general the results indicated that the social acceptability of new or non traditional activities is not just a the result of judgments related to social environmental and managerial conditions Factors such as safety and philosophical appropriateness were also important elements in visitors assessments of acceptability of llama packing Managers cannot assume that a non traditional activity is unacceptable and should focus on informational and educational approaches rather than simple reliance on zoning areas for different activities Given the results of this study managers also cannot assume that all packstock horses and llamas should be zoned together Moore R L 1994 Conflict on multiple use trails synthesis of the literature and state of practice Report No FHWA PD 94 031 Federal Highway Administration Web Link This is a comprehensive literature review of recreation conflict but with a particular emphasis on multiple use trails This study emphasizes the goal interference model of conflict and finds that multiple use trail managers are faced with three broad challenges maintaining user safety protecting natural resources and providing high quality user experiences Much of the conflict literature has focused on the later issue The report discusses four categories of management response physical design information and education user involvement and regulations and enforcement Finally based on this review of the literature the report distills twelve principles for minimizing conflicts on multiple use trails 1 recognize conflict as goal interference 2 provide adequate trail opportunities 2 minimize number of contacts in problem areas 4 involve users as early as possible 5 understand user needs 6 identify the actual sources of conflict 7 work with affected users 8 promote trail etiquette 9 encourage positive interaction among different users 10 favor light handed management 11 plan and act locally and 12 monitor progress Watson A E M J Niccolucci and D R Williams 1993 Hikers and recreational stocks users Predicting and managing conflicts in three wildernesses Intermountain Research Station Research Paper INT 468 United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service This study takes a detailed look at conflicts between hikers and recreational stock users in three wilderness areas the John Muir Wilderness the Sequoia Kings Canyon Wilderness and the Charles C Deam Wilderness Using the goal interference model proposed by Jacob and Schreyer along with modifications suggested by subsequent research the determinants of conflict between these two users groups were assessed through user surveys Three measures of conflict two attitudinal enjoyment dislike and a 5 point Likert scale of desirable to undesirable and one goal interference interference with with the quality of a wilderness experience were used to assess 17 potential predictors of conflict The predictors of conflict more accurately predicted attitudinal measures of conflict than they predicted the goal interference measure of conflict which is a result consistent with other research Strong and consistent predictors of conflict between hikers and horse users were general feelings of inappropriateness of horse use in wilderness differences in perceptions of visitors status related to horse

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/people/marcouiller/projects/clearinghouse/Recreation/RecManagement.htm (2014-11-22)
    Open archived version from archive