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  • Recreation Conflict - Carrying Capactiy
    authors tackle the issue of lack of correlation between crowding and satisfaction and density and perceived and conclude that normative standards offer more effective for making capacity judgments Setting capacity levels however does not solve the allocation issue Setting use levels does not solve the question of the appropriate mix of recreational users and the authors present two basic allocation mechanisms Recreation conflict is often attributed to both of these dimensions crowding and competition between different use types Stankey G H and S F McCool 1984 Carrying capacity in recreational settings Evolution appraisal and application Leisure Sciences 6 4 453 473 This article reviews the literature on the carrying capacity concept and its application to recreation management Written largely has a defense of the carrying capacity construct it argues that essential elements of the carrying capacity were recognized early including 1 recreationists seek multiple satisfactions from recreation and depending upon these encounters with others might add detract or be neutral in their effect on those experiences 2 satisfaction is a function of more than use level the type frequency and location of encounters are important intervening variables 3 clearly stated objectives are essential to identifying carrying capacities and 4 the emphasis in management needs to be on the outputs the experiential and environmental conditions desired not on the inputs such as use levels The article allows reviews critically the research on the relationship or lack of one between overall satisfaction and number of encounters The authors speculate that a number of mediating factors at play include 1 self selected nature of recreation participation 2 shifts in clientele and experience definition 3 multiple influences on satisfaction 4 how satisfaction is defined and measured 5 saliency of use levels and 6 the role of expectations and preferences The article concludes that management

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/people/marcouiller/projects/clearinghouse/Recreation/RecCarrying%20Capacity.htm (2014-11-22)
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  • Recreation Conflict - Compatibility
    network of hiking trails These study illustrates one approach for determining peoples perceptions on the relatively compatibility between different recreation uses van Kooten G C 1993 Management of Public Lands for Multiple Use In Land Resource Economics and Sustainable Development Economic Policies and the Common Good 363 391 Vancouver UBC Press This book provides an introduction to issues of land use and the economic tools that can be used to resolve land use conflicts This particular chapter focuses on the issue of multiple use management of public lands It provides an historical account of public land management in North America and looks at the province of British Columbia as a particular case study The conflicts between domestic and wildlife grazing and between timber production and grazing is used as an example to illustrate the economic transformation functions of alternative land uses With land uses considered as outputs produced by the land resource alternative land uses are 1 competitive 2 complementary 3 supplementary and 4 antagonistic Given this economic framework the optimal use of public lands can be determined For example one study in Arizona analyzed the trade off between hunting values and domestic grazing The researchers concluded that the marginal elk is more valuable than the marginal cattle and that the cattle and elk numbers were far from an economically efficient equilibrium Theoretically this procedure could be applied to many different problems including recreation conflicts However the method is fraught with many challenging including appropriate valuation of resources and development of transformation functions Fesenmaier D R and S R Lieber 1988 Destination diversification as an indicator of activity compatibility An exploratory analysis Leisure Sciences 10 167 178 The paper explores the compatibility between different recreational activities at in Oklahoma This exploratory study uses regression analysis to measure the interrelationships between outdoor recreation activities By looking at the type of outdoor recreation activity and the number of facilities where households choose to engage in those activities the study was able to measure the relative compatibility between different activities The study found compatibility amongst many activities and relatively few instances of incompatibility However the given the study methodology the relative compatibility was most often related to current configuration of recreation sites such as tent camping and day hiking which are available together at many locations in Oklahoma rather than the nature of the recreation activity Hay M J and K E McConnel 1984 Harvesting and nonconsumptive wildlife recreation decisions Land Economics 60 4 388 396 This study addresses the question of whether individuals make joint decisions to hunt and observe wildlife Using data from national surveys conducted in 1971 and 1975 a recreation participation decision model is constructed The analysis demonstrated some degree of complementarity between the two uses The results point toward the important conclusion that natural resource policy decisions will not only have direct effects on the activity of interest but important indirect effects on activities complementary to the activity of interest When model equations are specified without considering the

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/people/marcouiller/projects/clearinghouse/Recreation/RecCompatibility.htm (2014-11-22)
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  • Recreation Conflict - Norms
    subpopulation of respondents that constitutes a stricter test of norm congruence suggests a substantially higher level of norm incongruence The paper explores a number of reasons that might help explain these results including the need for some latitude around a personal norm the small number of watercraft aircraft dealt with in this study the study actually found little extreme incongruence which may be a better measure that a visitor evaluation of an encounter may depend on the behavior of the watercraft aircraft the global measure of enjoyment was used to measure norm congruence which may be inappropriate normative standards may be more fully developed by recreation specialists and the possibility that the norms being measured in this study were not important to visitors norm salience which may lead to challenges in visitors establishing a norm Shelby B J Vaske and M Donnelly 1996 Norms standards and natural resources Leisure Sciences 18 2 103 123 The article reviews the normative approach to recreation management and recreation management conflict or managing recreation areas based on individuals personal norms The article reviews norms that have been measured for peoples acceptance of different characteristics such as number of people encountered people engaged in different activities amount of litter noise levels services provided instream flow or ecological impacts Norms can vary considerably depending on a number of factors including activity types activity setting or motivation for engaging in the activity Norms are increasingly being used in resource management to help set management direction to define the salient characteristics of high quality settings to define standards that can be used as management targets to differentiate minimal conditions from optimal conditions to identify important impacts about which people feel more strongly and to indicate the degree of consensus among various interest groups The article also reviews some of the important considerations in norms research Finally the authors conclude that the normative approach is an interesting study of the symbiosis between science and management and in particular with science providing valuable information to managers making decisions on how things should be in recreation areas Ruddell E J and J H Gramann 1994 Goal orientation norms and noise induced conflict among recreation areas users Leisure Sciences 16 2 93 104 This study evaluates the goal interference theory of recreation conflict using data from a survey of 338 winter visitors to Padre Island National Seashore Texas The goal interference model defines interpersonal conflict as behavior of others that interferes with personal recreational goals The model also proposes that variations in personal standards of appropriate behavior for a setting were a major source of such interference The theory however did not address that possibility that some goals may be more vulnerable to interference from physically obtrusive behavior than others This study finds that visitors motivated by goals such as being with people considerate and respectful of others were more likely to perceive interference from loud radios than were visitors motivated by the goal to be with friends or other people like

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/people/marcouiller/projects/clearinghouse/Recreation/RecNorms.htm (2014-11-22)
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  • Recreation Conflict - Measurement
    Park in 1997 the relationship between these methodological issues and crowding related norms is studied Few statistically or substantively significant differences in crowding related norms were found to be associated with these methodological issues Study findings suggest that measures of crowding related norms may be relatively robust and this may add weight to the validity of the theory and methods associated with crowding related norms in outdoor recreation Manning R P Newman W Valliere B Wang and S Lawson 2001 Respondent self assessment of research on crowding norms in outdoor recreation Journal of Leisure Research 33 3 251 271 As norms are used are increasingly used to set recreation management standards it is important to ensure the validity of norms research Borrowing techniques developed in contingent valuation a battery of of questions was used to measure respondent self assessment of studies conducted in three U S National Parks The results indicated that most respondents 1 understood the questions being asked 2 felt the photographs used in the studies realistically represented a range of use densities at the study sites 3 were confident in their ability to report crowding norms and 4 felt the National Park Service should use such data in formulating park management policy Few differences in crowding norms were found between respondents who were confident in their answers and those who were less confident These findings offer some support for the validity of measures of crowding norms in outdoor recreation However the issues of validity is complex and needs to be researched further in relation to recreation norms Manning R W Valliere and B Wang 1999 Crowding norms Alternative measurement approaches Leisure Sciences 21 2 97 115 This article compares three different issues related to norm measurement in recreation research numerical versus visual approach long versus short question

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/people/marcouiller/projects/clearinghouse/Recreation/RecMeasurement.htm (2014-11-22)
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  • Recreation Conflict - Economic Valuation
    Hole and only during moderate to low flow conditions on the other the Bitterroot This type of information is helpful to policy makers as they make decisions regarding appropriate flow levels when conflicts arise between different uses of instream river flows Sanders L D R G Walsh and J B Loomis 1990 Toward empirical estimation of the total value of protecting rivers Water Resources Research 26 7 1345 1357 Increasingly conflicts exist between those looking to preserve rivers and river flows for environmental and recreational benefits and those looking to use river for extractive purpose Determining the economic value of these resources for recreational and environmental conservation purposes is an important component of working to solve these conflicts The purpose of this paper was to develop and apply a procedure to estimate a statistical demand function for the protection of rivers in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado The study found that the total value of rivers include important preservation benefits A sample of the general population of the state reports a willingness to pay for preservation benefits Inclusion of preservation benefits in state and federal guidelines for benefit cost analysis would improve the efficiency of river allocation and increase the welfare of society Forster B A 1989 Valuing outdoor recreational activity A methodological survey Journal of Leisure Research 21 2 181 201 This paper surveys the economic literature relevant to the monetary valuation of outdoor recreational activity Determining economic efficient allocation of recreational resources is one way for economists to contribute positively to solving recreation conflicts The paper examines issues that arise in the design and application of the travel cost method the contingent valuation method and the hedonic methods of valuing outdoor recreation activity The most commonly used methods are the travel cost method TCM and contingent valuation method CVM with hedonic property value method being a possible but seldom used approach The choice of method is often determined by the problem at hand and whether there is a variability in travel costs Wherever possible a combination of CVM and TCM elements in a study is preferred in order to validate results Loomis J B 1987 The economic value of instream flow methodology and benefit Journal of Environmental Management 24 169 179 This paper examines the research on the economic benefits of instream flow an important resource for a diverse range of recreation activities wildlife preservation and fisheries Techniques for estimating the economic efficiency benefits of non marketed resources such as contingent valuation and the travel cost method have been used by researchers to establish relationships between instream flow levels and benefits The marginal values of instream flow vary significantly with level of flow extreme values ranging from 0 50 to 74 per acre foot However most studies evaluated reported annual values between 14 and 27 acre per foot The value of the water for instream flow depends on a number of factors such as the amount of water or the timing of water availability For some rivers at

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/people/marcouiller/projects/clearinghouse/Recreation/RecEconomic%20Valuation.htm (2014-11-22)
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  • Urban and Regional Planning >> Career Development
    with urban and rural planning issues Search the jobs database for internship ad career opportunities Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning ACSP List of jobs for planners Cyburbia The Planning Community Features forums and job board Emerging Planners Survey Career Advice for Emerging Planners Planetizen The Planning and Development Network Public interest information exchange for the urban planning design and development community Search the jobs database for internship opportunities Planner

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/career/planningspecific.php (2014-11-22)
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  • Urban and Regional Planning >> Career Development
    of Public Affairs and Administration Agency for Healthcare Research Quality Department of Justice Career Opportunities National Credit Union Administration American Indian Higher Education Consortium Department of Labor Employment Training Administration National Rural Development Partnership Associates of the American Foreign Service Worldwide Department of State Nuclear Regulatory Commission Bureau of Labor Statistics BLS Department of Transportation Office of Management and Budget Census Bureau Governments Division Department of the Treasury Partnership for Public Service Center for Disease Control Prevention Environmental Protection Agency Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation Centers for Medicare Medicaid Services Federal Agencies and Commissions Rural Community Empowerment Program Coast Guard Federal Career Intern Program Securities and Exchange Commission Congressional Research Service Library of Congress Federal Reserve Board Social Security Administration Corporation for National and Community Service Foreign Service STAT USA Customs and Border Protection Government Accountability Office Stennis Center for Public Service Department of Agriculture General Services Administration Transportation Security Administration Department of Commerce Government Printing Office US Secret Service Department of Defense Internal Revenue Service USAID Employment Opportunities Department of Energy Health Resources Services Administration USDA Economic Research Service ERS Department of Health and Human Service Jobs International Trade Commission USDA Rural Development Department of Homeland Security Library of Congress Current Job Opportunities Department of Housing and Urban Development National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Federal Employment Resources Bureau of Labor Statistics Career One Stop Contacting the Congress Contact Information for U S Congress Democratic Gain FederalJobSearch com FedStats gov FirstGov gov U S Government Official Web Portal GOPJob Republican Party Jobs LBJ School of Public Affairs Federal Job Links Presidential Management Fellows Program RCJobs com Roll Call The Newspaper of Capital Hill THOMAS Current U S Congressional Legislation Information U S House of Representatives U S Library of Congress U S Executive Branch Web Sites Washington Network Group WashingtonJobs

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/career/federal-state.php (2014-11-22)
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  • Urban and Regional Planning >> Career Development
    County Richland County Brown County Kenosha County Rock County Buffalo County Kewaunee County Rusk County Burnett County La Crosse County Sauk County Calumet County Langlade County Sawyer County Chippewa County Lincoln County Shawano County Clark County Manitowoc County Sheboygan County Columbia County Marathon County St Croix County Dane County Marinette County Taylor County Dodge County Marquette County Trempealeau County Door County Milwaukee County Vilas County Douglas County Monroe County Walworth

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/career/county.php (2014-11-22)
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