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  • EcoPlanIT Madison
    identifying land to be off limits to development Only if it is sufficiently large can a natural area be effective in supporting biodiversity Here biodiversity refers both to the diversity of different types of species as well as to the genetic diversity within a species population A population is not viable after losing too much of its natural genetic variation Fortunately a variety of planning tools exist to secure land for conservation A municipality may choose to address protection of conservation areas through direct acquisition purchase of development rights or transfer of development rights programs conservation easements and zoning Direct purchase from the owner is a straightforward way for a city to acquire land Purchase of development rights programs as the name suggests allow municipalities to acquire development rights from landowners in designated areas Transfer of development rights allow for movement of development rights between regions within a municipality Conservation easements allow landowners to retain ownership while giving up development rights in exchange for tax breaks Finally zoning is an inexpensive way to protect conservation areas and it can be used to protect the conservation areas themselves or buffers around the conservation areas Any of these strategies may be incorporated in a municipality s comprehensive plan Madison boasts 14 conservation parks and the University of Wisconsin Arboretum They were established with the intention not just of protecting ecological services but for providing recreational and educational opportunities for people Nevertheless these conservation areas represent only a small percentage of the City s total open space Identifying new opportunities for conservation will be a challenging but worthwhile undertaking For inspiration Madison need only look to its own proud history of environmentalism John Muir attended the University in the 1860s before going on to shape the country s national park system and found

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/ecoplan/index.php?page=goal_2 (2014-11-22)
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  • EcoPlanIT Madison
    and energy conservation Albedo is the ratio of the amount of light reflected by certain material to the amount of light hitting the material and it is thus a measure of surface reflectivity Surfaces that have a low albedo experience more heating from sunlight than those with a high albedo Increasing the albedo of city surfaces therefore will decrease the amount of heat they retain helping to mitigate the urban heat island effect Roofs and pavements are two major contributors to surface warming in cities Retrofitting standard roofs with reflective roofing material can result not only in cooler temperatures but also in a longer service life of those roofs Rather than standard black asphalt paving for roads driveways and parking lots a city can encourage the use of light colored aggregates to be used in the asphalt or alternatives to asphalt such as granite slab colored concrete or terracotta bricks Studies have shown that the aggressive albedo enhancing strategies can result in a regional climate impact of 2 to 10 F It has also been shown that in warmer climates albedo enhancement can produce energy savings in buildings of up to 70 percent Evapotranspiration a key component of the hydrologic cycle is the combined process of evaporation and transpiration It involves the uptake of water in soil by plants the transport of water through the plant and its eventual evaporation from leaves and other surfaces Evapotranspiration is an important natural cooling process because water droplets absorb surface level heat and through evaporation convey this energy away from the earth s surface Accommodating the process of evapotranspiration in dense urban areas can be a useful approach to mitigating the urban heat island effect Protection of peripheral green space preserving and expanding natural areas and parks and increasing tree canopy on city

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/ecoplan/index.php?page=goal_3 (2014-11-22)
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  • EcoPlanIT Madison
    two While initial studies focused on the effect of stormwater runoff on ecosystems and groundwater aquifers more recent research seeks to find ways to minimize these impacts While some overlap does occur most stormwater management techniques fall into two different categories remediation and prevention Remediation techniques attempt to manage stormwater runoff once it leaves the boundaries of a parcel of land These techniques are generally characterized by large centralized systems that attempt to manage stormwater over a wide area Remediation is a part of the traditional divert and drain approach currently in use in many cities Examples of this type of technique would include catch basins filtration systems infiltration ditches and street cleaning Prevention techniques attempt to manage stormwater at the parcel level These techniques address the issue of reduced infiltration due to impervious coverage The goal of this approach is to return as much area as possible to pre development hydrologic conditions This is accomplished with low impact design LID methods such as rain gardens green roofs and pervious pavement As with the goal of greater energy conservation impervious coverage reductions over the long term can be achieved through the overall design of new urban development Just as the principles of transit oriented development provide guidelines that will lead to reduced vehicle miles traveled water sensitive design has the potential to produce significant reductions in stormwater runoff Even while prevention techniques focus on impervious coverage on the parcel level it is important to maintain a city wide perspective as well For example one would expect denser areas within a city to have a higher percentage of impervious surface area Rather than imposing unrealistic requirements on these areas a city plan should recognize that higher density in one area can accommodate impervious coverage reductions in other parts of the city

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/ecoplan/index.php?page=goal_4 (2014-11-22)
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  • EcoPlanIT Madison
    and adjacent lands could be expanded to meet this standard as well A no net loss recommendation has also been included in our district level recommendations to protect existing natural areas from development pressures Performance Standards Eight natural area sites of 25 acres or more on a citywide basis One additional site exceeding 250 acres No net loss of existing natural space Total Green Space In combination patches of open space and natural areas constitute the City s total green space While we have not developed a unique performance standard for total green space we have created a series of maps and charts to illustrate the distribution of all ecologically productive areas throughout the Madison study region Community Gardens Community gardens create opportunities for urban agriculture Green Space As with other types of open space these gardens can also contribute to other goals such as stormwater reduction Stormwater As part of a thriving local food system community gardens can contribute to energy conservation by cutting energy consumption associated with transportation and storage needs for food distribution Our standard for community gardens is derived from a citywide standard currently under consideration for inclusion in Madison s comprehensive plan Applying it on a district level can ensure that community gardens will be equitably distributed throughout city Performance Standard At least one community garden site per 2 000 residents Street Trees By shading buildings cooling the air through evapotranspiration and intercepting rainfall street trees are important to mitigating the urban heat island effect Climate Change and to reducing stormwater runoff Stormwater In general increasing the coverage of urban tree canopy can be a significant part of an effort to promote pedestrian friendly streets and city neighborhoods that are not overwhelmed by automobile traffic Because they provide many benefits with few or no negative side effects we adopted a standard of complete tree canopy cover for Madison s streets Performance Standard 100 percent street tree coverage in residential neighborhoods Impervious Coverage As described above research has shown a strong link between impervious coverage and the environmental impacts of stormwater runoff Aquatic ecosystems can start to experience environmental stress when impervious coverage within a watershed reaches ten percent Reducing the amount of impervious coverage can reduce quality and volume of runoff that enters surface waters by allowing for greater natural infiltration into the ground Stormwater In addition a reduction in the surface area of street paving and roofing shingle can help mitigate the urban heat island effect and reduce the use of energy intensive air conditioning in the summer months Stormwater In establishing a performance standard we selected three targets for different levels of city density high more than ten residents per acre medium five to ten residents per acre and low fewer than five residents per acre This classification is used to recognize that while one would expect denser areas within a city to have a higher percentage of impervious surface area higher densities in one part of the city can accommodate impervious coverage reductions in other parts of the city Performance Standard Maximum of 50 percent impervious coverage for high density districts Isthmus maximum of 30 percent impervious coverage for medium density districts Near West maximum of 20 percent impervious coverage for low density districts West South East and North Residential Sidewalks Sidewalks and sidewalk connectivity help create pedestrian friendly neighborhoods that are less dependent upon automobile use for short trips Climate Change Adding sidewalks however can have some negative side effects sidewalks increase impervious cover and installing them on older streets that currently lack them could entail removal of trees and shrubs that have grown up along the road To allow flexibility in addressing sidewalk deficits we adopted a performance standard slightly below 100 percent In addition our goals for impervious coverage reductions account for any increase in sidewalk paving required to meet the sidewalk performance standard Performance Standard Sidewalks on a minimum of 95 percent of residential streets Transit Service As mass transit is more energy efficient on a per rider basis than auto travel expanding transit service can provide alternatives to auto use and reduce greenhouse gas and waste heat emissions Climate Change Rather than adopt a uniform standard for the City we established a standard that depends on the population density of each district Literature on mass transportation has suggested that a density of seven units per acre is needed to support a bus transit system With population in census blocks used as a proxy for housing units per acre it became apparent that Madison Metro provides service in areas that are well below the seven unit density threshold For our standard then we calculated the average density of census blocks currently served by Madison Metro per district and used that as our district minimum Performance Standard All census blocks with a population density equal to or greater than the average population density of census blocks presently served by mass transit should be located within 1 4 mile of a transit stop GIS Analysis of Madison s Current Ecological Performance Once we had established our set of land use attributes and identified performance standards for each we set out to analyze and assess Madison s current performance relative to these standards It should be noted however that in several cases the standards were not finalized until after our analysis of Madison because in instances where no standard could be found in existing literature or city plans this analysis helped us determine what could be reasonable or feasible For purposes of analysis we divided Madison into six districts West Near West South Isthmus North and East Population data for each district used in calculating our statistics was derived from the 2000 U S Census To be sure this division is not the only valid way of structuring an analysis Madison s land use Whatever division is used however should provide some flexibility for the City as a whole in meeting the ecological performance standards while at the same time ensuring

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/ecoplan/index.php?page=about (2014-11-22)
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  • EcoPlanIT Madison - mail this page
    Enter your message to the ECOPLANiT team here To ECOPLANiT MADISON From Your name Your email Email a copy to yourself Join our email list

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/ecoplan/feedbackwindow.php?url_tosend= (2014-11-22)
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  • EcoPlanIT Madison - mail this page
    page you were viewing to a friend It looks like you were viewing Comments to include To Recipient s name Recipient s email From Your name Your email Email a

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/ecoplan/mailwindow.php?url_tosend= (2014-11-22)
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  • Urban and Regional Planning >> Faculty Profile
    nationally recognized authority on landscape aesthetics and visual resource quality assessment Prof Chenoweth s work has been recognized by the American Society of Landscape Architects with two honor awards for his research based landscape planning and analysis a merit award for research and in 1987 he was the recipient of the Bradford Williams Medal Most recently he was the reciepient of a Hammer award presented by Vice President Al Gore

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/people/chenoweth/ (2014-11-22)
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  • Urban and Regional Planning >> Faculty Profile
    Community Development Tools Journal of Planning Education and Research 28 4 426 440 View Publication Morales Alfonso 2008 A Woman s Place is on the Street Purposes and Problems of Mexican American Women Entrepreneurs at the conference An American Story Mexican American Entrepreneurship and Wealth Creation Austin TX May View Publication Morales Alfonso 2006 Chicago s Maxwell Street Market Promise and Prospects Prepared for the Maxwell Street Foundation 26 pages View Publication Balkin Steve and Alfonso Morales 2000 Linking Street Vendors to the Internet International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 20 3 4 99 122 View Publication Morales Alfonso 2000 Peddling Policy Street Vending in Historical and Contemporary Context International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 20 3 4 76 99 View Publication Morales Alfonso 1998 Income Tax Compliance and Alternative Views of Ethics and Human Nature Journal of Accounting Ethics and Public Policy 1 3 380 400 View Publication Morales Alfonso 1997 Uncertainty and the Organization of Street Vending Business The International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 17 3 4 191 212 View Publication Morales Alfonso Steve Balkin and Joe Persky 1995 Contradictions and Irony in Policy Research on the Informal Economy A Reply Economic Development Quarterly

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/people/morales/publications.php (2014-11-22)
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