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  • Applied Tourism Economic Impact Analysis - Computable General Equilibrium
    tourism or a particular event on the state economy The author advocates the use of CGE models particularly in the age of a globalized economy as they can handle such aspects as exchange rates and imports However CGE models require more comprehensive data sets and their application can also be fraught with restrictive assumptions Zhou D J F Yanagida U Chakravorty and P Leung 1997 Estimating Economic Impacts from Tourism Annals of Tourism Research 24 1 76 89 This study compares the results of an analysis using input output modeling and computable general equilibrium CGE modeling to estimate the economic impacts from tourism in Hawaii The study concludes that the results of the input output analysis are similar in magnitude to those of the CGE but generally higher This is likely due to the fact that the CGE model allows for resource reallocation while the input output model does not The CGE model is more flexible than input output analysis and this study demonstrates the value of its use in tourism economic impact analysis Lake States Examples Other Examples Blake A R Durbarry M T Sinclair and G Sugiyarto 2001 Modelling Tourism and Travel using Tourism Satellite Accounts and Tourism Policy and Forecasting Models Discussion Paper 2001 4 Nottingham UK Tourism and Travel Research Institute University of Nottingham http www nottingham ac uk ttri This paper documents the results of research using the Nottingham Tourism Policy and Forecasting TPF model to analyse tourism in the United States This model is based on Computable General Equilibrium CGE modelling techniques and incorporates Tourism Satellite Accounts TSAs as the fundamental data input The paper provides a detailed description of the structure equations and scope of the model TSAs are used to measure the size of the tourism economy while traditional input output models go some way towards measuring the total economic impact of tourism CGE modelling and the Nottingham TPF in particular allow for a more comprehensive analysis of tourisms economic impact The Nottingham TPF model can also be used to answer what if policy simulations or be used in tourism forecasting The authors illustrate three uses of the TPF model a 10 increase in foreign expenditures on tourism a 10 increase in Air Transport Productivity and the removal of indirect taxes and replacing them with non distorting taxes Blake A M T Sinclair and G Sugiyarto 2001 The Economy Wide Effects of Foot and Mouth Discussion Paper 2001 3 Nottingham UK Tourism and Travel Research Institute University of Nottingham http www nottingham ac uk ttri This paper details the results of analysis using the Nottingham Model of the United Kingdom economy which consists of Computable General Equilibrium CGE model linked to a Micro Regional Tourism Simulation MRTS model The model includes production relationships for 115 sectors of the economy and markets for 115 goods and services The authors analyze the impact of the foot and mouth disease outbreak on the tourism economy and the United Kingdom economy as a whole Significantly the

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/people/marcouiller/projects/clearinghouse/Computable%20General%20Equilibrium.htm (2014-11-22)
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  • Applied Tourism Economic Impact Analysis - Tourism Satellite Accounts
    are designed for use in analyzing tourism and tourism related employment in a standardized global system The TSAs are based on the most recent international statistical trends particularly the System of National Accounts of 1993 and the World Tourism Organisation and United Nations 1993 definitions on tourism statistics Smith S L J 2000 Measurement of Tourism s Economic Impacts Annals of Tourism Research 27 2 530 531 This conference report details the results of a discussion on Tourism Satellite Accounts TSAs held in Nice France in 1999 at a World Tourism Organization WTO conference TSAs which are standardized way of dipping into a country s National Accounts are now relatively well defined but much remains to be done refine and extend their application At the conclusion of the conference a number of resolutions were approved that TSAs will be the internationally accepted method for measuring the size of tourism as an area of economic activity that the provisional Standard Industrial Classification of Tourism Activities SICTA and the Tourism Product Code TPC will be refined and harmonized and that the WTO and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD are to work towards a unified approach to be submitted to the UN Committee of Statistical Experts for approval Ellard A K A Cheek and N P Nickerson 1999 Missoula Case Study Direct Impact of Visitor Spending on a Local Economy Research Report 65 Missoula MT Institute for Tourism and Recreation Research School of Forestry University of Montana Web Link This study uses tourism satellite accounts TSA to estimate county level direct economic impact of tourism in Missoula County Montana Limited survey data of local businesses is used to modify the national TSA ratios to be more reflective of Missoula County tourism dynamics The researchers suggest more investigation is needed to improve

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/people/marcouiller/projects/clearinghouse/Satellite%20Accounts.htm (2014-11-22)
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  • Applied Tourism Economic Impact Analysis - "Hallmark Events"
    face to face interviews of visitors and an input output model constructed using MicroIMPLAN to assess the economic impacts of the 1994 Farm Progress Days held in Columbia County Wisconsin This annual agricultural technology transfer event has long been an important connecting point for agricultural producers agribusiness interests and Cooperative Extension specialists In addition to expenditure patterns the survey collected information useful to planning future Farm Progress Days events Moyer H M Venkateswaran J Cottingham T Roper and R Tigner 1995 Agricultural Festivals Analysis of Selected Impacts on the Producers and the Communities Madison WI University of Wisconsin Extension Surveys were conducted of visitors to the festivals local businesses and orchard owners The results are described in the report Although expenditure data was gathered and local businesses reported increased activity this data was not translated into direct and indirect benefits in terms of income or jobs Norman W C S Hamilton and D W Marcouiller 1994 A Profile of Visitors to the 1993 Experimental Aircraft Association Convention Madison WI Tourism Research and Resources Center University of Wisconsin Extension Visitors to the 1993 Experimental Aircraft Association Convention were personally surveyed in order to develop a profile measure visitor expenditures and determine the economic impact The report provided a visitor profile trip characteristics trip satisfaction trip motives and activities visitor expenditures and economic impact analysis Using input output analysis total gross output increased by 83 041 400 as a result of the convention In addition more than 2 500 jobs were created Norman W C D W Marcouiller and S Hamilton 1994 A Profile of Visitors to the 1994 Dane County Fair Madison WI Tourism Research and Resources Center University of Wisconsin Extension This study examined the impact of the Dane County Fair on the local economy A visitor profile was prepared along with information about trip characteristics trip motives and area activities visitor satisfaction and visitor expenditures and their economic impact Input output analysis produced direct indirect and induced impacts of nonresident expenditures which increased the total gross output of the Dane County area by 1 873 200 A total of 27 annual full and part time jobs were created as well Hamilton S L Larson D Adler J Bauer and C Kellog 1992 1992 Wisconsin State Fair Visitor Profile Madison WI Recreation Resources Center University of Wisconsin Extension A sampling of people 1 457 who attended the State Fair were interviewed to prepare a visitor profile and expenditure pattern The study estimated that with per person expenditures averaging 25 24 total expenditures amounted to approximately 23 4 million Sumathi N R and D Berard 1992 Lac Courte Oreilles Honor the Earth Pow Wow An Informational and Economic Analysis Madison WI The Center for Community Economic Development Univeristy of Wisconsin Extension Honor the Earth Pow Wow dates to 1973 as an annual event of the Lac Courte Oreilles Tribe Little was known about the economic impact of this event to the area This report had three objectives to assess the economic impacts on Lac Courte Oreilles and the broader surrounding area to gather information related to participants interests and activities while attending the Honor the Earth Pow Wow and to gather source demographic information on participants for use in future planning organizing and promotional efforts The study found that with 5 000 visitors to the area and average party expenditures totaling 205 37 the economic impact was estimated at 316 328 An conservative local income multiplier of 1 3 was used to measure direct and indirect economic impacts Hamilton S 1991 Pulling to See Who Was At the 1991 Grand National Tractor Pull Madison WI Recreation Resources Center University of Wisconsin Extension At the Grand National Tractor Pull and the associated craft and flea markets in Tomah visitor surveys 1 048 were conducted to prepare a visitor profile and expenditure patterns The study estimated that average daily expenditures per person were 43 27 Gray J and S Hamilton 1990 1989 Wisconsin Festivals Inc Visitor Profile Madison WI Recreation Resources Center University of Wisconsin Extension Four of seven Craft Festivals were studied to prepare a visitor profile A survey of visitors was undertaken which included information on expenditure patterns The study found that craft purchases averaged 108 71 per party with an additional 10 spent on refreshments and another 26 spent in the area Gray J S Hamilton L Larson and T Kessenich 1990 1990 Wisconsin State Fair Visitor Profile Madison WI Recreation Resources Center University of Wisconsin Extension This report provides a visitor profile of State Fair patrons and estimates how much these patrons spent in the Milwaukee area both at the Fair and outside the fairgrounds The report also estimates use of lodging facilities Visitors spent about 30 million in the Milwaukee area with 9 5 million spent outside the fairgrounds Gray J D Sprehn and S Hamilton 1990 1990 Warrens Cranberry Festival Visitor Profile Madison WI University of Wisconsin Extension This visitor profile was generated from a sampling of people that were interviewed at the festival Expenditure patterns were evaluated as well The average dollars spent per day per person was estimated at 32 18 Gray J F Li and S Hamilton 1989 1989 Wisconsin River Logjam Kayak Races Madison WI Recreation Resources Center University of Wisconsin Extension Interviews were conducted of spectator at the Wisconsin River Logjam and Kayak races to prepare a visitor profile and expenditure patterns Logjam visitors spent an average of 40 82 per party per day in comparison to kayak race visitors who spent 26 39 on average per party per day It is estimated that a total of 362 206 was spent in the Wausau area during these two events Hovland J J Gray and S Hamilton 1989 Visitor Profile of the 1989 Fond Du Lac County Fair Fond du Lac WI Fond du Lac County University of Wisconsin Extension A survey of fair visitors 298 was conducted to provide a visitor profile and to estimate the how much was spent while attending

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/people/marcouiller/projects/clearinghouse/Hallmark%20Events.htm (2014-11-22)
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  • Applied Tourism Economic Impact Analysis - Other Methods
    Marcouiller 1996 Estimating Tourism s Share of Local Income From Secondary Data Sources Review of Regional Studies 26 3 317 340 UW Extension Report 97 4 May 1997 This paper presents an alternative method for generating county level estimates of employee compensation attributable to tourism based on secondary data sources The procedure used principal components and cluster analyses to establish regions matched by tourism structure The minimum requirements technique was then used to estimate the share of employee compensation attributable to nonlocal demand The procedure was applied to Wisconsin counties to estimate tourism shares attributable to travelers and recreational homeowners The principal components analysis showed Wisconsin tourism is driven by variable combinations of three components urban tourism outdoor based activities and natural parks specialty tourism Minimum requirements generated county level estimates of non local demand for disaggregated tourism sensitive business Marcouiller D W 1994 Tourism Related Labor Returns in Northern Wisconsin Staff Paper 94 1 Madison WI Tourism Research and Resources Center University of Wisconsin Extension Travelers and recreational homeowners are important sources of demand for firms operating in heavily tourism oriented regions Returns to labor resources employed in tourism related firms provides important detail of the economic development implications of tourism development on rural forested regions This study analyzes employee compensation in two regions of Northern Wisconsin by industry The export share of these returns to labor resources is identified using a minimum requirements technique Results indicate that the export shares exceed fifty percent in many important service real estate and construction industries within this region Kottke M 1988 Estimating the Economic Impacts of Tourism Annals of Tourism Research 15 122 133 Linear programming is used to estimate the potential economic impact of tourism growth for three growth scenarios and a benchmark situation in New London County Connecticut Linear programming as compared to input output models multiplier cost benefit analysis or simple inventory budget approaches can be used to answer the question of what would be the most appropriate types of tourism businesses or enterprises for a community The objective function of model was formulated to maximize gross tourism income For each scenario an increase in tourism visits was used in the model to predict gross tourism income land use and labor The most efficient mix of new firms was also predicted with the typology of motels eating drinking firms marinas sport shops and auto service stations Dwyer J F and R D Espeseth 1977 Improved Local Planning for Reservoir Orientated Recreation Opportunities Research Report Urbana IL Water Resources Center University of Illinois This report looks at the actual impact of the construction of the Lake Shelbyville reservoir Prior to construction there were relatively high expectations as to the number of recreationists likely to visit Lake Shelbyville on an annual basis 4 7 million who would spend on average 3 4 dollars per day The Lake had no real discernible impact on county population trends nor income levels and total number of visitors has been approximately 3 million on

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/people/marcouiller/projects/clearinghouse/Economic%20Impact%20Other%20Techniques.htm (2014-11-22)
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  • Applied Tourism Economic Impact Analysis - Conversion Studies
    setting the development schedule of a set of projects Siegal W and W Ziff Levine 1994 Evaluating Tourism Advertising Campaigns Conversion vs Advertising Tracking Studies Travel Tourism and Hospitality Research A Handbook for Managers and Researchers J R Brent Ritchie and Charles R Goeldner ed New York John Wiley and Sons Ltd Second Edition 559 571 This book chapter compares the methodology of conversion studies and advertising tracking studies It advocates for the use of advertising tracking studies rather than conversion studies as the appropriate method for determining the effectiveness of a tourism advertising campaign The advertising tracking study does not assume a linear process that leads from the advertising campaign through a request for literature and then to a visit to the destination Instead the advertising tracking study recognizes that some advertisement viewers will not request literature but still make a choice to visit the destination The principle method of a advertising impact study is to a pre and post advertisement survey of the target audience Woodside A G and I A Ronkainen 1994 Improving Advertising Conversion Studies Travel Tourism and Hospitality Research A Handbook for Managers and Researchers J R Brent Ritchie and Charles R Goeldner ed New York John Wiley and Sons Ltd Second Edition 545 557 Conversion research studies are conducted to the questions of how many inquirers from travel ads convert to visitors and what are the convertors demographic and travel behavior characteristics including length of stay travel party size destination activities and expenditures The authors contend that typical conversion studies are typically poorly conducted and promote the use of a more scientific method control group studies For example by using a split run in a magazine where half the households receive the ad and half the households do not A random sample of both groups will yield the influence of the advertisement The authors go on to discuss the specifics of conversion studies including sampling and sample size response rates expenditure surveys assessing multiple trips and ultimately data analysis They conclude with an eight point list on the way conversion studies could and should be improved Lake States Examples Sumathi N R and R Orton 1992 Advertising Conversion Study An Informational and Economic Analysis of Oneida County Visitors Madison WI University of Wisconsin Extension Because tourism promotion is a common way to promote a destination organizations need to know whether their dollars spent on promotion are effective For this report a mail survey was sent to inquirers of the Oneida County Visitors Bureau Respondents were asked about the effectiveness of advertising their information sources about Onieda County their home county or state their destination in Oneida County their party size average party expenditures their favorite recreational activities and their attitudes related to eco tourism cultural heritage and historical attractions Average party expenditures totaled 638 with Illinois residents outspending Wisconsin residents by about 200 The results indicated that for every advertising dollar the increase in sales was 2 06 in the form of visitor expenditures

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/people/marcouiller/projects/clearinghouse/Conversion.htm (2014-11-22)
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  • Applied Tourism Economic Impact Analysis - Data Colleciton
    a more cost effective strategy may be to do away with the three wave approach and do more intensive follow up of smaller sampling of non respondents Yuan M 2001 Reoperationalizing Economic Data Collection Annals of Tourism Research 28 3 727 737 The purpose of this study is to investigate the differences between using a traditional survey design asking tourists to record their expenditures during the first two days of their trip in one area vs using a new design that asks for only one day of expenditures for a pre selected day of their trip The results showed that the number of group expenditures and average daily expenditure did not differ significantly between the two treatment groups However the second approach did differ significantly in producing higher initial response rates lower rejection rates and higher overall net response rates While this methodology does work best with larger sample sizes its higher usable response rate 12 and potential cost savings may lead to the collection of better expenditure data increased accuracy in forecasting and more effective long term planning Other studies should investigate other factors such as modifying instruction or content to aid researchers in designing methodologies that will produce the best results given cost limitations Breen H A Bull and M Walo 2001 A Comparison of Survey Methods to Estimate Visitor Expenditure at a Local Event Tourism Management 22 473 479 The paper investigate the relationship between recalled expenditure survey data and social bravado or peer pressure effects at special events When using the interview recall technique males had a tendency to overestimate their food and beverage expenditures when they were surveyed as part of a group Other significant findings include that memory recall rather than expenditure diaries tended to result in lower estimation of visitor expenditures owning perhaps to memory decay There were no differences in the reported expenditures from people who had their expenditure diary collected the last day of the event and those who mailed in their diary Ryan C and R Garland 1999 The Use of a Specific Non Response Option on Likert type Scale Tourism Management 20 107 113 The paper argues that the use of non response options in questionnaires relating to attitudinal research offers various advantages First if non random patters of response on individual items within a questionnaire occur such patterns may hold valuable information for the researcher Second the provision of the non response option may mean that any resultant analysis is based upon a sample with appropriate knowledge or opinions thereby aiding discrimination To support this view various pieces of past research by the authors are presented where patterns of non response are analyzed In each case it was found that the existence of the non response option offered some new insight Such insights could help to improve subsequent questionnaires if used at the pilot study stage or illustrate specific aspects of a sample s attitudes for example in one case about uncertainty over a council s tourism policies

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/people/marcouiller/projects/clearinghouse/Data%20Collection.htm (2014-11-22)
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  • Applied Tourism Ecocomic Impact Analysis - Income Distribution
    101 counties of Northern Minnesota Wisconsin and Michigan The study region is delineated by forest type and represents the forested region of the Lake States A social accounting matrix with extensions to computable general equilibrium analysis is presented as an approach which allows estimation of income distribution and general equilibrium impacts Marcouiller D W D F Schreiner and D K Lewis 1993 Constructing a Social Accounting Matrix to Address Distributive Economics Impacts of Forest Management Regional Science Perspectives 23 2 60 90 This paper documents the use of a Social Accounting Matrix SAM to analyze the distributional impacts brought on by a changes in natural resource use patterns In particular the shift to more intensive modes of forest production are analyzed for McCurtain County in southeastern Oklahoma A hybrid IMPLAN model is developed to construct a SAM with the basic operative unit of the household In this particular study medium and high income households are most impacted by timber production while low income households by wood processing This study provides a detailed account of how to construct a SAM Lake States Examples Marcouiller D W E Goodman S Fox and D Scheler 2004 Travel and Tourism Employment in Wisconsin Moving Beyond Aggregate Estimates and Conventional Wisdom Madison WI University of Wisconsin Extension Department of Urban Regional Planning University of Wisconsin Madison This study looks at the employment and wages characteristics of the travel and tourism industry in the State of Wisconsin in 2001 02 Focus groups are also used to contextualize the results of the quantitative analysis and provide input on such aspects as the business climate seasonality labor markets and the impact of public policy Statewide the travel and tourism industry generated almost 320 000 total jobs or 12 of all wage and salary jobs The average annual wage and salary income generated by travel and tourism industry jobs was almost 13 000 compared to 27 000 for all industries Roughly three quarters of the wages and salary are generated in 25 urban and suburban communities while as a percentage of all economic activity travel and tourism make up a substantially larger portion 25 30 of income and jobs for rural Wisconsin Tourism firm owners and operators were optimistic about the quality of career ladder opportunities in the industry and emphasizes the quality of life associated with owning a small business and living in high amenity areas Leatherman J C and D W Marcouiller 1996 Income Distribution Characteristics of Rural Economic Sectors Implications for Local Development Policy Growth and Change 27 4 434 459 Recent trends suggest increasing reliance on private markets to provide for local economic well being This paper demonstrates the study of regional household income distribution patterns associated with productive activities important to many rural areas A social accounting matrix analysis was used to examine agricultural production agricultural processing forestry production forest products processing and tourism in a small rural region in Southwestern Wisconsin to illustrate the variable distributional characteristics of private market structures and related

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/people/marcouiller/projects/clearinghouse/Income%20Distribution.htm (2014-11-22)
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  • Applied Tourism Economic Impact Analysis - Employment, Seasonality and Distribution
    and salary income generated by travel and tourism industry jobs was almost 13 000 compared to 27 000 for all industries Roughly three quarters of the wages and salary are generated in 25 urban and suburban communities while as a percentage of all economic activity travel and tourism make up a substantially larger portion 25 30 of income and jobs for rural Wisconsin Tourism firm owners and operators were optimistic about the quality of career ladder opportunities in the industry and emphasizes the quality of life associated with owning a small business and living in high amenity areas Marcouiller D W 1996 The Seasonality of Labor Use in Rural Tourism Regions June 1 3 1995 St Louis Paper presented at the 1995 Mid continent Regional Science Association This study used monthly 1993 ES 202 data on employment and a standard deviation approach to develop an index of annual seasonality in labor use among four Wisconsin regions In addition to statewide data these regions included three counties in Northern Wisconsin Door County and the Wisconsin Dells Labor use of characteristic tourism types are compared and contrasted with respect to 1 digit SIC categories Other Examples Dillon T 2000 Employment and Wages The Travel Industry in Montana Technical Report 2000 1 Missoula University Travel Research Program The University of Montana Web Link This report looks at the distribution of Montana tourism jobs by sector major sector the seasonality of tourism jobs in certain sectors the part time nature of tourism jobs and the average tourism wage of employees Wilton D and T Wirjanto 1998 An Analysis of the Seasonal Variation in the National Tourism Indicators Waterloo ON Canadian Tourism Commission Department of Economics University of Waterloo Web link This paper looks at the seasonality of demand supply and employment in the tourism

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/people/marcouiller/projects/clearinghouse/Employment.htm (2014-11-22)
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