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  • Applied Tourism Economic Impact Analysis - Introduction to Tourism Supply
    industry and the tension between a supply side versus demand side definitions No other industry uses demand side definitions and the author argues for tourism definitions that begin to use supply side concepts While it is recognized that the tourism industry is unlike any other industry it does not produce goods in an industry wide standard manner it posits that the tourism industry s primary product can be conceptualized as an experience involving all aspects of a trip A hypothetical structure of the tourism product is discussed and it includes five elements a physical element a service hospitality personal choice and involvement by the visitor The process of producing the tourism product involves four stages the input of land labor and capital the input of facilities parks hotels museums etc the output of services interpretation souvenirs accommodation etc and the final output of experiences recreation relaxation memories etc The chapter also discusses Tourism Satellite Accounts TSAs that are an important standardized method for measuring the impact of the tourism industry However TSAs still define tourism using demand side definitions Wilson K 1998 Market Industry Confusion in Tourism Economic Analyses Annals of Tourism Research 25 4 803 817 This paper looks at the issue of economic impact of tourism in light of the considerable debate over whether tourism is in fact an industry or a market Given the economic definition of an industry the author concludes that tourism is in fact not an industry and that industry based tools of economics are relevant to an analysis of tourism only under clearly stated assumptions In many instances the author argues tourism generates events which in turn may be analyzed as market based activities For example adventure heritage or cultural tourism all generate events embodied in market activity The products provided in these markets will come from a range of industries where the tourism based market demand for the firms products may vary in size and importance Smith S L J 1995 Defining and describing tourism In Tourism Analysis A Handbook Essex Longman Group Limited Second Edition 20 41 This chapter describes the challenges with describing and defining tourism In particular it focuses on defining tourism as a demand side concept from the perspective of the person taking the trip or supply side from the perspective of the business supplying the tourism product or service A history of tourism definitions is presented as well as the current definition from the World Tourism Organization WTO Tourism is the set of activities of a person traveling to a place outside his or her usual environment for less than a year and whose main purpose of travel is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited On the demand side tourism can be classified by such factors as length of stay type of traveler type of trip type of expenditure transport mode or accommodation type On the supply side the tourism industry can be classified first by whether the business or

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/people/marcouiller/projects/clearinghouse/Introduction%20Supply.htm (2014-11-22)
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  • Applied Tourism Economic Impact Analysis - Factors of Production
    of the tourism phenomenon Gunn C A 1997 Tourism Function Supply and Attractions First Power In Vacationscape Developing Tourist Areas Washington Taylor Francis 31 57 These two chapters look at the tourism supply function Supply is seen as being modeled by five independent components attractions transportation services information and promotion Most important component is the tourism attraction This author however takes a broad view of what is an attraction and what makes an attraction attractive Six factors are considered easy comprehensibility basis in the surrounding environment type of owner control commercial government or non profit magnetism of the attraction capacity to satisfy and result of creation Three primary actors develop the supply of tourism products the commercial sector non profit organizations and government Gunn C A 1997 Destination Development In Vacationscape Developing Tourist Areas Washington Taylor Francis 58 68 This chapter describes the concept of the destination zone The main conclusion that the author draws is that the site development must always be seen in a larger context The development of individual sites is connected to and dependent on many others and even across larger geographical areas There are four components of a destination zone attraction complexes service community transportation and access and linkage corridors When the concept of the destination zone is applied to the urban to remote scale four subzones emerge urban subzone suburban subzone rural subzone and remote subzone In urban and suburban areas the attractions complexes are based on service businesses while in the rural and remote subzones attraction complexes based on natural resources dominate Cooper C J E Fletcher D Gilbert and S Wanhill 1993 Patterns and Characteristics of the Supply of Tourism In Tourism Principles and Practice London Pitman Publishing 80 93 This book chapter introduces the characteristics of tourism supply and outlines the

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/people/marcouiller/projects/clearinghouse/Production.htm (2014-11-22)
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  • Applied Tourism Economic Impact Analysis - Measuring Tourism Supply
    into industries The system is hierchical with industry grouped together into sectors There is no tourism sector included in the NAICS but a list of the NAICS codes that describe the tourism production system at the industry and US national industry level are provided Smith S L J 1995 Defining and describing tourism In Tourism Analysis A Handbook Essex Longman Group Limited Second Edition 20 41 This chapter describes the challenges with describing and defining tourism In particular it focuses on defining tourism as a demand side concept from the perspective of the person taking the trip or supply side from the perspective of the business supplying the tourism product or service A history of tourism definitions is presented as well as the current definition from the World Tourism Organization WTO Tourism is the set of activities of a person travelling to a place outside his or her usual environment for less than a year and whose main purpose of travel is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited On the demand side tourism can be classified by such factors as length of stay type of traveller type of trip type of expenditure transport

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/people/marcouiller/projects/clearinghouse/Measuring.htm (2014-11-22)
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  • Applied Tourism Economic Impact Analysis - Supply Market Structure
    different supply characteristics exist for example in the provision of accommodation transport facilities number of recreation facilities type of entertainment venues or level of promotion activities Borooach V K 1999 The Supply of Hotel Rooms in Queensland Australia Annals of Tourism Research 26 4 985 1003 The papers examines the supply decisions of hotel and motel owners with respect to guest rooms This decision is hypothesized to depend upon earnings per room room occupancy rates and the rate of interest The reaction of hoteliers to changes in the values of these particular variables is modeled econometrically for the 1986 94 period The supply of guest rooms was strongly responsive to increases in earnings but was less influenced by increases in room occupancy rate or by changes in interest rate The author argues that the present study suggests that it is likely that in most regions in determining supply responses room prices will play the major role and that room occupancy rates will be assigned a minor part Sinclair M T and M Stabler 1997 The Theory of Tourism Supply and Its Market Structure In The Economics of Tourism New York Routledge 58 94 This chapter focuses on the supply of

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/people/marcouiller/projects/clearinghouse/Market%20Structure.htm (2014-11-22)
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  • Applied Tourism Economic Impact Analysis - Measuring Recreation Supply
    benefits Generally the were lower effect sizes reported for setting based benefits compared to activity based benefits English D B K and H K Cordell 1993 Effective Recreation Opportunity Set EROS Index A Computable Measure of Recreation Supply Research Paper SE 286 Asheville NC Southeastern Forest Experiment Station This paper develops a measure of supply of recreation opportunities computable from available data The measure is based on the theory of the household production of recreation supply It measures the availability of a set of recreation resources to households in a given location as an input to produce recreation trips relative to the availability of the same set of resources to households in other locations The measure is developed as an index to allow for combining several different types of recreation resources into a more comprehensive metric of availability of a particular recreation environment Cordell H K and J C Bergstrom 1991 A Methodology for Assessing National Outdoor Recreation Demand and Supply Trends Leisure Sciences 13 1 20 This paper present the model and method developed for aggregate analysis of US national outdoor recreation and wilderness demand and supply assessment Price change was used as the principle indicator of changes in demand relative to changes in supply for individual recreation activities Recreation supply was seen as a function of the total number of trips that can be produced by a community at various trip costs The total number of sites the capacity of the site for recreation and the distance to the site determines the average cost per trip As the number of recreation trips goes up the community must travel on average further necessarily incurring higher time and resource costs and therefore the average cost per trip also rises The supply curve can be shifted by the investment in recreation

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/people/marcouiller/projects/clearinghouse/Recreation%20Supply.htm (2014-11-22)
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  • Applied Tourism Economic Impact Analysis - Describing Tourism's Spatial Patterns
    regional analysis of tourism resources in South Carolina The intent of the study was to replicate a methodology developed by Smith 1987 Four tourism resource indices were formulated and use to develop six different types of county clusters which describe the basic structure of tourism resources in the state The study compares the regional pattern of county clusters with four measures of economic importance of tourism Such comparison was made to illustrate the significance of tourism in each county and give a better understanding of tourism characteristics within the state Smith S L J 1987 Regional Analysis of Tourism Resources Annals of Tourism Research 14 253 273 This paper describes a procedure for defining tourism regions on the basis of county level resource patterns Four basic structures are identified using principal component analysis urban tourism outdoor recreation cottaging boating and urban fringe tourism The four structures were then grouped into six different type of counties The spatial patterns of these county types reveal a complexity that is masked by the existing simplified tourism regions defined by the Province of Ontario Urban tourism resources appear to be the most significant determinant of total county tourism receipts while cottaging boating resources are the most important determinant of the relative local magnitude of tourism as an industry Keogh B 1984 The Measurement of Spatial Variations in Tourist Activity Annals of Tourism Research 11 267 282 The paper looks at the problem of using physical accommodation capacity figures to identify spatial variations in the level of tourist activity and considers the implications for the interpretation of Defert s tourist function TF index Employing accommodation capacity figures to infer relative levels of tourist activity provides a good approximation when most of the accommodation is in the form of hotels and motels In such cases Defert

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/people/marcouiller/projects/clearinghouse/description.htm (2014-11-22)
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  • Applied Tourism Economic Impact Analysis - Agritourism
    N P Nickerson 1997 The Business of Agritourism Recreation in Montana Research Report 50 Missoula MT Institute for Tourism and Recreation Research School of Forestry University of Montana Web Link This study builds a profile of farmers and ranchers involved in the agritourism recreation business A survey of 292 such businesses was conducted Agritourism recreations accounted for approximately 16 of total income on average and the ability to make additional

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/people/marcouiller/projects/clearinghouse/Agritourism.htm (2014-11-22)
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  • Applied Tourism Economic Impact Analysis - Bed and Breakfasts
    to apply the technique of hedonic pricing to the tourism industry The hedonic pricing model treats goods and services as providing a collection of characteristics and can be applied to a market for any differentiated product or service Using data from bed and breakfast in Walworth County Wisconsin the hedonic pricing model is used to reveal the willingness to pay for different amenities While location is the largest determinant of

    Original URL path: http://urpl.wisc.edu/people/marcouiller/projects/clearinghouse/Bed%20and%20Breakfasts.htm (2014-11-22)
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