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  • Icons and the Senses
    here are light and slender with delicate linear highlights emphasizing celestial facial features All icons are heavily restored and retouched especially in the faces and hands St John the Baptist is robed in a green cloak covering an orange robe His feet are clad in sandals and stand firmly on a striated foreground of dark brown and green His cloak and robe are heavily incised especially around his knees and feet His head and face are covered by a rough long mop of wavy brown hair and a thin and scraggly beard emphasizing him as a model of the hermetic way of life The Virgin Mary leans in the opposite direction of St John the Baptist originally situated to Christ s left Her head is bowed forward dramatically addressing Christ and also the viewer below In popular Christianity as well as the traditional Orthodox liturgy the Virgin Mary as Mother of God was and remains a favorite figure in the Russian church as the primary human intercessor to Christ Her dark red robe is decorated with a star and edge with gold fringe where it crosses her arm The red cloak covers a blue robe which is heavily incised with vertical lines at the knees St John Chrysostom is placed directly to Mary s left in this installation although it is possible another figure or figures would have stood in between them on an iconostasis such as an archangel or an apostle see 1978 12 17 He wears bishop s robes including a maroon polystavrion a heavy dalmatic or outer garment embroidered with a repeated cross and gamma pattern and a white omophorion or stole decorated with three black crosses His robe covers his hand which holds a book with a decorative gold cover John Chrysostom a 4th century bishop

    Original URL path: http://arthistory.wisc.edu/exhibitions/icons/37-1-5.html (2015-11-11)
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  • Icons and the Senses
    saw the Mother of God as she prayed within the church then removed her veil and proceeded to surround the congregation with it as a form of Holy protection The Mother of God is depicted at center hovering in mid air above the Holy doors of the sanctuary within a Russian style domed church A purple mantle drapes her arms which are extended in prayer Above her appears the figure of Christ flanked by two angels who hold her protective veil St Andrew and his disciples stand below and to the right as witnesses to the vision along with three bishops and a group of apostles The dating of Russian icons in the Chazen s Davies collection is complicated by the fact that many relatively late icons made in the nineteenth or early twentieth centuries copied the styles of much earlier ones and in some cases such as the Pokrov the icons appear to have been artificially aged to produce a uniform cracked surface George Galavaris dated the Pokrov icon to the late sixteenth century on the basis of comparison with the icon of the same subject in Novgorod The two are compositionally very similar sharing the same disposition and poses of the figures such as Christ Mary and St Andrew the Fool 3 He also assumed that the original icon which would have been painted on a gesso layer covered with linen was transferred to the present modern panel Technical analysis performed in the 1980s by Manuel Theodore a Conservator of Paintings at the Walters Art Gallery suggests a much later dating 4 Theodore s chemical analysis of color pigment suggests that it is oil rather than egg tempera and demonstrates that the pigments date no earlier than the nineteenth century Samantha Desrochers Bibliography Galavaris George Icons from the

    Original URL path: http://arthistory.wisc.edu/exhibitions/icons/37-1-8.html (2015-11-11)
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  • Icons and the Senses
    length figures of Christ the Virgin and the Baptist are divided across the three wings The left and right panels each display four bishops led by an archangel in an orderly procession towards Christ in the central panel At left the Archangel Michael leads four bishops or hierarchs of the Byzantine church Saints Nicholas of Myra John Chrysostom Gregory Nazianzos and Basil the Great On the right panel the Archangel Gabriel escorts the four metropolitans of the Russian church Saints Peter Alexis Jonah and Philip The arrangement of the saints suggests that both churches are in harmony with each other even though Moscow in the years leading up to the collapse of the Byzantine empire in 1453 had already proclaimed itself the Third Rome and become the focal point for Eastern Orthodoxy Although the general arrangement of the triptych conforms to the Deësis tier of the iconostasis or sanctuary screen in Russian orthodox churches including the central group of Christ with the Mother of God and John the Baptist archangels and bishop saints the specific selection of saints from the Russian Church as Margot Baxter has shown places emphasis on the metropolitan see of Moscow Peter at far left was the first Metropolitan of Moscow when it was founded in the fourteenth century as successor to the see of Vladimir in 1325 Alexis was the first native Russian to be appointed Metropolitan of Moscow Jonah was appointed in 1449 as the first Russian Patriarch not dependent on the Patriarch of Constantinople thus establishing the Russian Orthodox Church as autocephalus or self ruling for the first time Finally Metropolitan Peter who promoted the independence of the Church from the Tsar and Russian State was venerated as a national saint and martyr following his murder by Ivan the Terrible in 1568 All

    Original URL path: http://arthistory.wisc.edu/exhibitions/icons/62-4-1.html (2015-11-11)
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  • Icons and the Senses
    Christ Pantocrator enthroned and carrying a book flanked by the Virgin Mary and St John the Baptist The extended Deësis on the bottom tier often referred to as the Worship Tier includes fourteen saints on either side of Christ Mary John and any other figure depicted are shown facing toward Christ with their hands raised some in supplication others in offering up an array of liturgical items These gestures are meant to denote exchange and holy intercession a symbol meant to promote prayer in the beholder Although the central grouping in a Deësis always includes the Pantocrator the Virgin and St John the other figures in a iconostasis such as this could be customized reflecting the wishes and personal saints of their commissioner included here the Bishops of the local Moscow church Above the Deësis and Worship Tier is the Church Feasts Tier It consists of icons of the primary church Holy Days depicting events of the New Testament Church and particularly the lives of Christ and the Virgin including the Birth of the Virgin her Presentation in the Temple the Annunciation Nativity Presentation of Christ in the Temple the Raising of Lazarus the Transfiguration the Elevation of the Holy Cross the Baptism Entry into Jerusalem Anastasis Descent into Hell the Crucifixion Women at the Empty Tomb the Trinity the Ascension of Christ and the Dormition of the Virgin They represent the principal stages of Divine Providence in the world and the fulfillment of what was foretold by the upper tiers called the Patriarchs or Forefathers Tier This top tier includes saints from the Old Testament gesturing towards the central image of Mother and Child This program of personal devotion meant to accompany chanting burning incense and flickering candlelight was heavily based on the idea of personal intercession and communing

    Original URL path: http://arthistory.wisc.edu/exhibitions/icons/62-4-2.html (2015-11-11)
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  • Icons and the Senses
    Pentecost Jesus Healing the Blind Man the Ascension and the Trinity commemorated at Pentecost In addition to their liturgical connections the four images on either side recall Christ s miraculous restorations of body and sight the four front side images relate to Christ s promise of bodily resurrection while the four reverse images depict the restoration of sight and promise of heavenly assumption The symbolic significance of water as life giving spring is echoed on both sides with the repeated image of a six sided well a theme intimately linked to the liturgical season to which the icon was devoted Architectural frames surround the figure of Christ in both the Doubting Thomas and Disputation initiating the visual cycles on both sides The iconography recalls a group of bilateral fifteenth century tablet icons from the church of St Sophia Novgorod 1 The delicate architectural backdrops deep coloring and elongated figures with small hands echo the miniaturizing style of the so called Stroganov school suggesting a date in the seventeenth century or even as late as the nineteenth century during the popular revival of richly decorated liturgical objects 2 Painted on fabric over leather the icon was perhaps used as a portable icon painter s model or lectern level icon for the fifty days of celebrations comprising the liturgical season of the Pentecostarion or Flowery Triodon 3 Also known as Kneeling Day the liturgy of the Great Vespers at Pentecost reintroduces for the first time since Pascha the ritual act of kneeling in adoration often directed towards small icons placed on a lectern facing the iconostasis 4 As a collection of icons reinforcing the fundamental Orthodox belief in Christ s incarnation resurrection and life eternal the two sided icon as a whole represents a powerful visual and liturgical argument against anti Orthodox

    Original URL path: http://arthistory.wisc.edu/exhibitions/icons/1992-331.html (2015-11-11)
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    Original URL path: http://arthistory.wisc.edu/sendMail.asp (2015-11-11)
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  • The Golden Age of Victorian Watercolors
    1995 1 The Fate of Persephone Walter Crane English 1845 1915 1877 Watercolor 1991 96 Settling the Disputed Point Richard Dadd English 1817 1886 1854 Watercolor over graphite Yale Center for British Art B1975 3 1229 Elves in a Rabbit Warren Richard Doyle English 1823 1883 1875 Graphite and watercolor 2010 26 The Intruder John Austen Fitzgerald English 1832 after 1906 ca 1865 Watercolor bodycolor graphite and gum arabic 2001 42 Hastings at Sunset Albert Goodwin English 1845 1932 1885 Watercolor 2009 13 68 The Devil s Bridge St Gotthard Pass Alfred William Hunt English 1830 1896 ca 1859 Watercolor 1991 7 A Barn Interior with a Boy Standing by a Chest William Henry Hunt English 1790 1864 no date probably 1840s Watercolor 2002 50 Argos from Mycenae 1849 Edward Lear English 1812 1888 1880 Gouache watercolor 1993 2 Ithuriel s Pursuit of Satan Daniel Maclise Irish 1806 1870 active in England n d Gouache 1998 17 Scottish Lovers Daniel Maclise Irish 1806 1870 active in England 1865 Oil on canvas 1993 77 A Coach and Four Arriving at a Tollgate London James Miller English active by 1763 d 1805 ca 1785 Ink and watercolor 1991 2 Street of Tombs Pompeii Hannah Palmer English 1818 1893 1838 Graphite watercolor and gouache 2004 30 The Timber Wain Samuel Palmer English 1805 1881 ca 1833 Watercolor and gouache Yale Center for British Art B2001 2 1084 A Waterfall North Wales Samuel Palmer English 1805 1881 1835 1836 Graphite charcoal and watercolor 2009 52 Study From Nature Inveruglas Joseph Noel Paton Scottish 1821 1901 1857 Watercolor heightened with gouache B2008 20 Isola San Giulio Lago d Orta Edward John Poynter English 1836 1919 1898 Watercolor with bodycolor and scraping out on wove paper Yale Center for British Art Paul Mellon Fund B1990 2

    Original URL path: http://arthistory.wisc.edu/exhibitions/victorian-watercolors/catalogue.html (2015-11-11)
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  • The Golden Age of Victorian Watercolors
    Julia Griffith The Forces of History and Nature Creating the Mediated Sublime within Albert Goodwin s Hastings at Sunset by Rachel Klimczyk Landscape as Distinctively British by Rebekah Rickner Framing Blake Nineteenth Century Reception Networks and Artistic Ideologies by Naomi Salmon Henry Ryland in Context Aestheticism and Neo Classicism in Victorian Art by Grace EunHye Shin George Price Boyce s Godstow Nunnery Oxfordshire as Timeline by Caitlin Silberman Conscious and

    Original URL path: http://arthistory.wisc.edu/exhibitions/victorian-watercolors/essays.html (2015-11-11)
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